About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 408727, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/408727
Research Article

Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

1Institute of Social Medicine, Epidemiology and Health Economics, Charité University Medical Centre, 10098 Berlin, Germany
2 Department of Internal and Complementary Medicine Immanuel Hospital Berlin, 14109 Berlin, Germany
3National Research Center in Complementary and Alternative Medicine, University of Tromsø, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
4Karl und Veronica Carstens-Foundation, 45276 Essen, Germany
5Department of Psychiatry, University of Salzburg, 5020 Salzburg, Austria
6Chair of Quality of Life, Spirituality and Coping, Center of Integrative Medicine, University Witten/Herdecke, 58313 Witten-Herdecke, Germany
7Chair of Integrative Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, 45276 Essen, Germany

Received 25 May 2012; Revised 7 August 2012; Accepted 9 August 2012

Academic Editor: Shirley Telles

Copyright © 2012 Andreas Michalsen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Frankfurter Allgemein Zeitung und Techniker Krankenkasse: Erhebung zur Stressbelastung in der Deutschen Bevölkerung 2009, Frankfurt am Main, Hamburg: F.A.Z.-Institut für Management-, Markt- und Medieninformationen GmbH, Techniker Krankenkasse, 2009.
  2. N. Kapur, I. Hunt, M. Lunt, J. McBeth, F. Creed, and G. Macfarlane, “Psychosocial and illness related predictors of consultation rates in primary care—a cohort study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 719–728, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. E. Plummer, K. Gournay, D. Goldberg, S. A. H. Ritter, A. H. Mann, and R. Blizard, “Detection of psychological distress by practice nurses in general practice,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 1233–1237, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. M. Stirling, P. Wilson, and A. McConnachie, “Deprivation, psychological distress, and consultation length in general practice,” British Journal of General Practice, vol. 51, no. 467, pp. 456–460, 2001. View at Scopus
  5. A. Bierhaus, J. Wolf, M. Andrassy et al., “A mechanism converting psychosocial stress into mononuclear cell activation,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 1920–1925, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. Y. Chida, M. Hamer, J. Wardle, and A. Steptoe, “Do stress-related psychosocial factors contribute to cancer incidence and survival?” Nature Clinical Practice Oncology, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 466–475, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Rozanski, J. A. Blumenthal, and J. Kaplan, “Impact of psychological factors on the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and implications for therapy,” Circulation, vol. 99, no. 16, pp. 2192–2217, 1999. View at Scopus
  8. M. Ismail, M. Ibrar, Z. Iqbal et al., et al., “Association between psychological distress and mortality: individual participant pooled analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies,” British Medical Journal, vol. 345, article e4933, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Rosengren, S. Hawken, S. Ôunpuu et al., “Association of psychosocial risk factors with risk of acute myocardial infarction in 11119 cases and 13648 controls from 52 countries (the INTERHEART study): case-control study,” Lancet, vol. 364, no. 9438, pp. 953–962, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. Epel, J. Daubenmier, J. T. Moskowitz, S. Folkman, and E. Blackburn, “Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and telomeres,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1172, pp. 34–53, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. YIAS, “Yoga in America Study, cited 04-07-2012,” 2008, http://www.yogajournal.com/press/yoga_in_america.
  12. Yoga survey, Signet Market Research. Yoga Journal, Active interest Media, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2000.
  13. B. K. S. Iyengar, The Tree of Yoga, Shambala, Boston, Mass, USA, 1989.
  14. N. Hartfiel, J. Havenhand, S. B. Khalsa, G. Clarke, and A. Krayer, “The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 2011. View at Scopus
  15. J. K. Kiecolt-Glaser, L. Christian, H. Preston et al., “Stress, inflammation, and yoga practice,” Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 113–121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. N. M. Brisbon and G. A. Lowery, “Mindfulness and levels of stress: a comparison of beginner and advanced hatha yoga practitioners,” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 931–941, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Hafner-Holter, M. Kopp, and V. Günther, “Effects of fitness training and yoga on well-being stress, social competence and body image,” Neuropsychiatrie, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 244–248, 2009. View at Scopus
  18. R. Sharma, N. Gupta, and R. L. Bijlani, “Effect of yoga based lifestyle intervention on subjective well-being,” Indian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 123–131, 2008. View at Scopus
  19. C. Smith, H. Hancock, J. Blake-Mortimer, and K. Eckert, “A randomised comparative trial of yoga and relaxation to reduce stress and anxiety,” Complementary Therapies in Medicine, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 77–83, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. C. S. Chong, M. Tsunaka, H. W. Tsang, et al., “Effects of yoga on stress management in healthy adults: a systematic review,” Alternative Therapies In Health And Medicine, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 32–38, 2011.
  21. A. Michalsen, P. Grossman, A. Acil et al., “Rapid stress reduction and anxiolysis among distressed women as a consequence of a three-month intensive yoga program,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. CR555–CR561, 2005. View at Scopus
  22. S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, and R. Mermelstein, “A global measure of perceived stress,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 385–396, 1983. View at Scopus
  23. C. Spielberger, R. Gorsuch, and R. Lushene, STAI, Manual for the State-Trait-Anxiety-Inventory, Consulting psychologist press, Palo Alto, Calif, USA, 1970.
  24. C. Albani, G. Blaser, M. Geyer et al., “The German short version of “profile of mood States” (POMS): psychometric evaluation in a representative sample,” Psychotherapie Psychosomatik Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 55, no. 7, pp. 324–330, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. D. McNair, M. Lorr, and L. Droppleman, “Profile of mood states states (Dt. Bearbeitung),” in Collegium Interantionale Psychiatriae Scalarum, Scalarum CIP, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim, Germany, 1981.
  26. Derogatis, The brief symptom inventory (BSI): Adminstration, scoring and procedures manual-II, National Computer Systems, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 1992.
  27. M. Hautzinger and M. Bailer, Allgemeine Depressionsskala (ADS). Die deutsche Version des CES-D, Beltz, Weinheim, Germany, 1991.
  28. L. S. Radloff, “The CES-D scale: a self-report depression scale for research in the general population,” Applied Psychological Measurement, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 385–401, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. D. Von Zerssen and D. Koeller, Die Befindlichkeits-Skala (The Well-Being Questionnaire), Beltz-Test Gesellschaft, Weinheim, Germany, 1976.
  30. J. Fahrenberg, The Freiburg Complaint List FBL, Hogrefe, Göttingen, Germany, 1994.
  31. B. K. S. Iyengar, Light on Yoga, Schocken Books, New york, NY, USA, 1995.
  32. R. Lavey, T. Sherman, K. T. Mueser, D. D. Osborne, M. Currier, and R. Wolfe, “The effects of yoga on mood in psychiatric inpatients,” Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 399–402, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. D. Shapiro, I. A. Cook, D. M. Davydov, C. Ottaviani, A. F. Leuchter, and M. Abrams, “Yoga as a complementary treatment of depression: effects of traits and moods on treatment outcome,” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 493–502, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Hartfiel, J. Havenhand, S. B. Khalsa, G. Clarke, and A. Krayer, “The effectiveness of yoga for the improvement of well-being and resilience to stress in the workplace,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 70–76, 2011. View at Scopus
  35. K. A. Williams, J. Petronis, D. Smith et al., “Effect of Iyengar yoga therapy for chronic low back pain,” Pain, vol. 115, no. 1-2, pp. 107–117, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. Williams, C. Abildso, L. Steinberg et al., “Evaluation of the effectiveness and efficacy of iyengar yoga therapy on chronic low back pain,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 19, pp. 2066–2076, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Posadzki and E. Ernst, “Yoga for low back pain: a systematic review of randomized clinical trials,” Clinical Rheumatology, vol. 30, no. 9, pp. 1257–1262, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. J. Sherman, D. C. Cherkin, A. J. Cook et al., “Comparison of yoga versus stretching for chronic low back pain: protocol for the Yoga Exercise Self-care (YES) trial,” Trials, vol. 11, article 36, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. B. Saper, K. J. Sherman, D. Cullum-Dugan, R. B. Davis, R. S. Phillips, and L. Culpepper, “Yoga for chronic low back pain in a predominantly minority population: a pilot randomized controlled trial,” Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 18–27, 2009. View at Scopus
  40. P. Tekur, C. Singphow, H. R. Nagendra, and N. Raghuram, “Effect of short-term intensive yoga program on pain, functional disability and spinal flexibility in chronic low back pain: a randomized control study,” Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 637–644, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. E. Moerman and W. B. Jonas, “Deconstructing the placebo effect and finding the meaning response,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 136, no. 6, pp. 471–476, 2002. View at Scopus
  42. P. T. V. Farinatti, C. Brandão, P. P. S. Soares, and A. F. A. Duarte, “Acute effects of stretching exercise on the heart rate variability in subjects with low flexibility levels,” Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1579–1585, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Mueck-Weymann, G. Janshoff, and H. Mueck, “Stretching increases heart rate variability in healthy athletes complaining about limited muscular flexibility,” Clinical Autonomic Research, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 15–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. J. A. Blumenthal, M. A. Babyak, K. A. Moore et al., “Effects of exercise training on older patients with major depression,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 19, pp. 2349–2356, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus