- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 490301, 14 pages
Ginseng Berry Extract Prevents Atherogenesis via Anti-Inflammatory Action by Upregulating Phase II Gene Expression
1Vascular Homeostasis Laboratory and Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Kangwon National University, Gangwon-do, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea
2Department of Surgery, Seoul Medical Center, Seoul 131-130, Republic of Korea
3Amorepacific Corporation R&D Center, Gyeonggi-do, Yongin 446-729, Republic of Korea
4Division of Molecular Life Sciences, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 120-750, Republic of Korea
5Department of Biochemistry, College of Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea
Received 16 August 2012; Accepted 18 October 2012
Academic Editor: Alvin J. Beitz
Copyright © 2012 Chun-Ki Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
- R. Ross, “The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis: a perspective for the 1990s,” Nature, vol. 362, no. 6423, pp. 801–809, 1993.
- P. G. Tipping and W. W. Hancock, “Production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 by macrophages from human atheromatous plaques,” American Journal of Pathology, vol. 142, no. 6, pp. 1721–1728, 1993.
- B. R. Kwak and F. Mach, “Statins inhibit leukocyte recruitment: new evidence for their anti-inflammatory properties,” Arteriosclerosis, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1256–1258, 2001.
- K. W. Nam, J. Kim, J. J. Hong et al., “Inhibition of cytokine-induced IκB kinase activation as a mechanism contributing to the anti-atherogenic activity of tilianin in hyperlipidemic mice,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 180, no. 1, pp. 27–35, 2005.
- K. Brand, S. Page, G. Rogler et al., “Activated transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B is present in the atherosclerotic lesion,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 1715–1722, 1996.
- L. D. K. Buttery, D. R. Springall, A. H. Chester et al., “Inducible nitric oxide synthase is present within human atherosclerotic lesions and promotes the formation and activity of peroxynitrite,” Laboratory Investigation, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 77–85, 1996.
- E. Galkina and K. Ley, “Vascular adhesion molecules in atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2292–2301, 2007.
- S. Vallabhapurapu and M. Karin, “Regulation and function of NF-κB transcription factors in the immune system,” Annual Review of Immunology, vol. 27, pp. 693–733, 2009.
- Y. J. Surh, J. K. Kundu, and H. K. Na, “Nrf2 as a master redox switch in turning on the cellular signaling involved in the induction of cytoprotective genes by some chemopreventive phytochemicals,” Planta Medica, vol. 74, no. 13, pp. 1526–1539, 2008.
- S. H. Park, J. H. Jang, C. Y. Chen, H. K. Na, and Y. J. Surh, “A formulated red ginseng extract rescues PC12 cells from PCB-induced oxidative cell death through Nrf2-mediated upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 and glutamate cysteine ligase,” Toxicology, vol. 278, no. 1, pp. 131–139, 2010.
- J. S. Chen, P. H. Huang, C. H. Wang et al., “Nrf-2 mediated heme oxygenase-1 expression, an antioxidant-independent mechanism, contributes to anti-atherogenesis and vascular protective effects of Ginkgo biloba extract,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 214, no. 2, pp. 301–309, 2011.
- J. M. Lü, Q. Yao, and C. Chen, “Ginseng compounds: an update on their molecular mechanisms and medical applications,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 293–302, 2009.
- A. S. Attele, J. A. Wu, and C. S. Yuan, “Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1685–1693, 1999.
- L. Dey, J. T. Xie, A. Wang, J. Wu, S. A. Maleckar, and C. S. Yuan, “Anti-hyperglycemic effects of ginseng: comparison between root and berry,” Phytomedicine, vol. 10, no. 6-7, pp. 600–605, 2003.
- A. S. Attele, Y. P. Zhou, J. T. Xie et al., “Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component,” Diabetes, vol. 51, no. 6, pp. 1851–1858, 2002.
- Y. K. Kim, D. S. Yoo, H. Xu et al., “Ginsenoside content of berries and roots of three typical Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng) cultivars,” Natural Product Communications, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 903–906, 2009.
- J. H. Kim, H. J. Na, C. K. Kim et al., “The non-provitamin A carotenoid, lutein, inhibits NF-κB-dependent gene expression through redox-based regulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/PTEN/Akt and NF-κB-inducing kinase pathways: role of H2O2 in NF-κB activation,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 885–896, 2008.
- G. Lee, H. J. Na, S. Namkoong et al., “4-O-methylgallic acid down-regulates endothelial adhesion molecule expression by inhibiting NF-κB-DNA-binding activity,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 551, no. 1-3, pp. 143–151, 2006.
- H. J. Jeon, J. H. Choi, I. H. Jung et al., “CD137 (4-1BB) deficiency reduces atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice,” Circulation, vol. 121, no. 9, pp. 1124–1133, 2010.
- A. M. Kuhn, N. Tzieply, M. V. Schmidt et al., “Antioxidant signaling via Nrf2 counteracts lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses in foam cell macrophages,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1382–1391, 2011.
- Y. S. Bae, H. Oh, S. G. Rhee, and Y. D. Yoo, “Regulation of reactive oxygen species generation in cell signaling,” Molecules and Cells, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 491–509, 2011.
- J. H. C. Lin, Y. Zhu, H. L. Liao, Y. Kobari, L. Groszek, and M. B. Stemerman, “Induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 by low-density lipoprotein,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 185–194, 1996.
- S. Y. Hwang, D. J. Son, I. W. Kim et al., “Korean red ginseng attenuates hypercholesterolemia-enhanced platelet aggregation through suppression of diacylglycerol liberation in high-cholesterol-diet-fed rabbits,” Phytotherapy Research, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 778–783, 2008.
- R. K. Siegel, “Ginseng and high blood pressure,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 243, no. 1, p. 32, 1980.
- I. W. Joo, J. H. Ryu, and H. J. Oh, “The influence of Sam-Chil-Geun (panax notoginseng) on the serum lipid levels and inflammations of rats with hyperlipidemia induced by poloxamer-407,” Yonsei Medical Journal, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 504–510, 2010.
- T. Ishibashi and Y. Takeishi, “Ezetimibe and vascular inflammation,” Current Vascular Pharmacology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 99–108, 2011.
- S. H. Gutiérrez, M. R. Kuri, and E. R. del Castillo, “Cardiac role of the transcription factor NF-κB,” Cardiovascular and Hematological Disorders, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 153–160, 2008.
- P. O. Leung, S. H. Wang, S. H. Lu, W. H. Chou, C. Y. Shiau, and T. C. Chou, “Simvastatin inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators through induction of heme oxygenase-1 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264. 7 macrophages,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 207, no. 2, pp. 159–166, 2011.
- A. Mantovani, F. Bussolino, and E. Dejana, “Cytokine regulation of endothelial cell function,” FASEB Journal, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 2591–2599, 1992.
- P. Libby, P. M. Ridker, and G. K. Hansson, “Inflammation in Atherosclerosis. From Pathophysiology to Practice,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 54, no. 23, pp. 2129–2138, 2009.
- C. Mazière and J. C. Mazière, “Activation of transcription factors and gene expression by oxidized low-density lipoprotein,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 127–137, 2009.
- S. J. Lee, S. K. Bai, K. S. Lee et al., “Astaxanthin inhibits nitric oxide production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent NF-κB activation,” Molecules and Cells, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 97–105, 2003.
- M. L. Wu, Y. C. Ho, C. Y. Lin, and S. F. Yet, “Heme oxygenase-1 in inflammation and cardiovascular disease,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 150–158, 2011.
- J. D. Hayes, J. U. Flanagan, and I. R. Jowsey, “Glutathione transferases,” Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol. 45, pp. 51–88, 2005.
- N. Hadad and R. Levy, “The synergistic anti-inflammatory effects of lycopene, lutein, β-carotene, and carnosic acid combinations via redox-based inhibition of NF-κB signaling,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 53, no. 7, pp. 1381–1391, 2012.
- J. H. Chen, H. P. Ou, C. Y. Lin et al., “Carnosic acid prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced cell death in SH-SY5Y cells via mediation of glutathione synthesis,” Chemical Research in Toxicology, vol. 25, no. 9, pp. 1893–1901, 2012.
- Q. Sun, Q. T. Meng, Y. Jiang, and Z. Y. Xia, “Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates intestinal ischemia reperfusion induced renal injury by activating Nrf2/ARE pathway,” Molecules, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 7195–7205, 2012.
- L. Wang, Y. Zhang, Z. Wang et al., “Inhibitory effect of ginsenoside-Rd on carrageenan-induced inflammation in rats,” Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 229–236, 2012.
- J. Wang, L. Qiao, Y. Li, and G. Yang, “Ginsenoside Rb1 attenuates intestinal ischemia-reperfusion- induced liver injury by inhibiting NF-kappaB activation,” Experimental & molecular medicine, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 686–698, 2008.
- Z. Zhang, X. Li, W. Lv et al., “Ginsenoside Re reduces insulin resistance through inhibition of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase and nuclear factor-κB,” Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 186–195, 2008.
- B. H. Juulink, “Dietary Nrf2 activators inhibit atherogenic processes,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 225, no. 1, pp. 29–33, 2012.
- W. Li, T. O. Khor, C. Xu et al., “Activation of Nrf2-antioxidant signaling attenuates NFκB-inflammatory response and elicits apoptosis,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 76, no. 11, pp. 1485–1489, 2008.
- S. J. Chapple, R. C. Siow, and G. E. Mann, “Crosstalk between Nrf2 and the proteasome: therapeutic potential of Nrf2 inducers in vascular disease and aging,” International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1315–1320, 2012.
- J. H. Kim, Y. K. Choi, K. S. Lee et al., “Functional dissection of Nrf2-dependent phase II genes in vascular inflammation and endotoxic injury using Keap1 siRNA,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 629–640, 2012.
- K. Ishikawa, D. Sugawara, X. P. Wang et al., “Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits atherosclerotic lesion formation in LDL-receptor knockout mice,” Circulation Research, vol. 88, no. 5, pp. 506–512, 2001.
- C. Cheng, A. M. Noordeloos, V. Jeney et al., “Heme oxygenase 1 determines atherosclerotic lesion progression into a vulnerable plaque,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 23, pp. 3017–3027, 2009.
- T. Li, H. Tian, Y. Zhao et al., “Heme oxygenase-1 inhibits progression and destabilization of vulnerable plaques in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis,” European Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 672, no. 1–3, pp. 143–152, 2011.