Table 6: Pre- to posttest changes on performance-based assessments (PBA).

PBA dimensionN Means (St Dev)Time × classroom Grade 7/8Grade 9 All grades
PrePostMANOVA1(16 classes; )(4 classes; )(20 classes; )

Snapshot3602.76 (1.16)3.90 (1.31)TimeF = 113.20, eta2 = .42***F = 93.38, eta2 = .64***F = 264.55, eta2 = .52***
Time × classroomYes***N.S.Yes***
Word skills3512.99 (1.41)3.83 (1.32)TimeF = 33.75, eta2 = .18***F = 14.57, eta2 = .22***F = 80.47, eta2 = .25***
Time × classroomYes***N.S.Yes**
Predicting2763.00 (1.11)4.01 (1.32)TimeF = 6.125, eta2 = .28***n/an/a
Time × classroomYes***
Checks understanding2552.99 (1.33)3.97 (1.35)TimeF = 45.62, eta2 = .23***n/an/a
Time × classroomYes**
Text features3402.94 (1.45)4.19 (1.41)TimeF = 78.40, eta2 = .33***F = 63.39, eta2 = .55***F = 155.72, eta2 = .39***
Time × classroomYes***Yes*Yes***
Accuracy/completeness2373.53 (1.62)3.91 (1.33)TimeF = 8.50, eta2 = .05**n/an/a
Time × classroomN.S.
Main idea3512.86 (1.60)4.06 (1.59)TimeF = 62.63, eta2 = .29***F = 56.359, eta2 = .52***F = 131.67, eta2 = .35***
Time × classroomYes***Yes*Yes***
Details3532.70 (1.42)3.63 (1.55)TimeF = 35.83, eta2 = .19***F = 46.85, eta2 = .47***F = 95.67, eta2 = .28***
Time × classroomN.S.N.S.Yes**
Note-making3402.37 (1.63)3.24 (1.83)TimeF = 9.63, eta2 = .06**F = 16.71, eta2 = .24***F = 39.173, eta2 = .14***
Time × classroomYes**N.S.Yes***
Inferences3492.60 (1.60)3.63 (1.67)TimeF = 35.31, eta2 = .19***F = 26.56, eta2 = .34***F = 83.40, eta2 = .25***
Time × classroomN.S.Yes*Yes**
Connections3512.67 (1.57)3.91 (1.71)TimeF = 76.38, eta2 = .33***F = 35.00, eta2 = .40***F=135.07, eta2 = .35***
Time × classroomYes***N.S.Yes**
Evaluation3492.91 (1.63)3.95 (1.62)TimeF = 21.92, eta2 = .12***F = 40.31, eta2 = .44***F = 73.18, eta2 = .23***
Time × classroomYes**N.S.Yes***

, ** , * . 1Results from multivariate repeated measures analyses of variance conducted with PBA dimensions as the dependent measures, and with time (pre-post) and class as independent variables. Follow-up univariate tests were then conducted for each PBA dimension separately.