Table 4: Some epidemiological studies on non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

ExposureStudy populationRelative risk or odds ratio (95% confidence interval)Main strengthsMain limitationsReference

Ecological studies

Residing in vicinity of municipal solid waste incinerators with high dioxin emission levelsPopulation of four French administrative department (Isère, Bas-Rhin, Haut-Rhin, Tarn)RR for living in highly exposed area compared to living in slightly exposed area: .120 (1.002–1.251) High number of cases. Acceptable characterization of environmental exposureLimited correction for confounding (only on geographical block level) [141]

Case control studies

𝛽 -hexachlorocyclohexaneOR per 10 ng/g serum lipid: 1.05 (1.00–1.12)
p,p dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT)OR per 10 ng/g serum lipid: OR = 1.20 (1.01–1.45)
DioxinsNeighbors of a French municipal solid waste incineratorOR per pg WHO1998-TEQ/g lipid.: 1.12 (1.03–1.26) P < 0.01Measurement of personal internal exposure. Adequate correction for confoundersOnly 34 cases and 34 controls[142]
FuransOR per pg WHO1998-TEQ/g lipid. 1.16 (1.03–1.35) P = 0.01
Dioxin-like PCBsOR per pg WHO1998-TEQ/g lipid.: 1.04 (1.00–1.07) P = 0.02
Non-dioxin-like PCBsOR per 10 ng/g serum lipid: 1.02c (1.01–1.05) P = 0.01