About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
Journal of Obesity
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 874981, 11 pages
Research Article

Obesity-Related Metabolomic Analysis of Human Subjects in Black Soybean Peptide Intervention Study by Ultraperformance Liquid Chromatography and Quadrupole-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

1Department of Food Metabolism and Nutrition, Korea Food Research Institute, 516 Paekhyon-dong, Pundang-ku, Songnam, Kyongki-do 463-747, Republic of Korea
2Research and Development Center, Nong Shim Co., Ltd., Seoul 156-709, Republic of Korea
3Department of Food & Nutrition, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749, Republic of Korea
4Department of Food Science & Nutrition, Yongin University, Kyongki-do, 134 Samka-dong, Chuin-ku, Yongin, Kyongki-do 449-714, Republic of Korea

Received 18 December 2012; Revised 7 March 2013; Accepted 11 March 2013

Academic Editor: Xu Feng Huang

Copyright © 2013 Min Jung Kim et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. W. Haslam and W. P. James, “Obesity,” The Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9492, pp. 1197–1209, 2005.
  2. E. E. Calle, C. Rodriguez, K. Walker-Thurmond, and M. J. Thun, “Overweight, obesity, and mortality from cancer in a prospectively studied cohort of U.S. Adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 348, no. 17, pp. 1625–1638, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. P. Adams and P. G. Murphy, “Obesity in anaesthesia and intensive care,” British Journal of Anaesthesia, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 91–108, 2000. View at Scopus
  4. J. R. Soh, D. H. Shin, D. Y. Kwon, and Y. S. Cha, “Effect of Cheonggukjang supplementation upon hepatic acyl-CoA synthase, carnitine palmitoyltransferase I, acyl-CoA oxidase and uncoupling protein 2 mRNA levels in C57BL/6J mice fed with high fat diet,” Genes and Nutrition, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 365–369, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. J. R. Soh, D. Y. Kwon, and Y. S. Cha, “Hepatic gene expression profiles are altered by dietary unsalted Korean fermented soybean (Chongkukjang) consumption in mice with diet induced obesity,” Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism, vol. 2011, Article ID 260214, 10 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. D. Y. Kwon, S. M. Hong, I. S. Ahn, M. J. Kim, H. J. Yang, and S. Park, “Isoflavonoids and peptides from meju, long-term fermented soybeans, increase insulin sensitivity and exert insulinotropic effects in vitro,” Nutrition, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 244–252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. L. Yang, S. H. Lee, and Y. S. Song, “Improved effect of powders of cooked soybean and chungkukjang on blood pressure and lipid metabolism in spontaneously hypertensive rats,” Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, vol. 32, pp. 899–905, 2003.
  8. M. Messina, “Modern applications for an ancient bean: soybeans and the prevention and treatment of chronic disease,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 125, no. 3, pp. 567–569, 1995. View at Scopus
  9. V. R. Young, “Soy protein in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition,” Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol. 91, no. 7, pp. 828–835, 1991. View at Scopus
  10. H. J. Yang, S. Park, V. Pak, K. R. Chung, and D. Y. Kwon, “Fermented soybean products and their bioactive compounds,” in Soybean and Health, H. A. El-Shemy, Ed., p. 59, Intech, Rijeka, Croatia, 2011.
  11. A. Nagasawa, K. Fukui, T. Funahashi et al., “Effects of soy protein diet on the expression of adipose genes and plasma adiponectin,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 34, no. 11-12, pp. 635–639, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Nagasawa, K. Fukui, M. Kojuma, et al., “Divergent effects of soy protein diet on the expression of adipocytokines,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 311, no. 4, pp. 909–914, 2003.
  13. J. H. Kwak, J. H. Lee, C. W. Ahn et al., “Black soy peptide supplementation improves glucose control in subjects with prediabetes and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1307–1312, 2010. View at Scopus
  14. H. J. Kim, I. Y. Bae, C. W. Ahn, S. Lee, and H. G. Lee, “Purification and identification of adipogenesis inhibitory peptide from black soybean protein hydrolysate,” Peptides, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 2098–2103, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. H. Kwak, C. W. Ahn, S. H. Park, et al., “Weight reduction effects of a black soy peptide supplement in overweight and obese subjects: double blind, randomized, controlled study,” Food and Nutrition, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 1019–1024, 2012.
  16. G. Puski, “Modification of functional properties of soy proteins by proteolytic enzyme treatment,” Cereal Chemistry, vol. 52, pp. 655–664, 1975.
  17. H. J. Kim, J. H. Kim, S. Noh et al., “Metabolomic analysis of livers and serum from high-fat diet induced obese mice,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 722–731, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Y. Kwon, S. W. Oh, J. S. Lee, H. J. Yang, S. H. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Amino acid substitution of hypocholesterolemic peptide originated from glycinin hydrolyzate,” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 11, pp. 55–61, 2002.
  19. J. Y. Kim, J. Y. Park, O. Y. Kim et al., “Metabolic profiling of plasma in overweight/obese and lean men using ultra performance liquid chromatography and Q-TOF Mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS),” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 9, no. 9, pp. 4368–4375, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. W. B. Dunn, D. Broadhurst, P. Begley et al., “Procedures for large-scale metabolic profiling of serum and plasma using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry,” Nature Protocols, vol. 6, no. 7, pp. 1060–1083, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. J. Rho, S. Park, C.-W. Ahn, J.-K. Shin, and H. G. Lee, “Dietetic and hypocholesterolaemic action of black soy peptide in dietary obese rats,” Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 908–913, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. H. Jang, J. S. Moon, J. H. Ko et al., “Novel black soy peptides with antiobesity effects: activation of leptin-like signaling and AMP-activated protein kinase,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 32, no. 7, pp. 1161–1170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. B. Allison, G. Gadbury, L. G. Schwartz et al., “A novel soy-based meal replacement formula for weight loss among obese individuals: a randomized controlled clinical trial,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 514–522, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. O. Galili, D. Versari, K. J. Sattler, et al., “Early experimental obesity is associated with coronary endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress,” American Journal of Physiology—Heart and Circulatory Physiology, vol. 292, no. 2, pp. H904–H911, 2007.
  25. N. Aiyar, J. Disa, Z. Ao, et al., “Lysophosphatidylcholine induces inflammatory activation of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 295, no. 1-2, pp. 113–120, 2007.
  26. G. Schmitz and K. Ruebsaamen, “Metabolism and atherogenic disease association of lysophosphatidylcholine,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 208, no. 1, pp. 10–18, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Croset, N. Brossard, A. Polette, and M. Lagarde, “Characterization of plasma unsaturated lysophosphatidylcholines in human and rat,” Biochemical Journal, vol. 345, no. 1, pp. 61–67, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. M. Nelson, “Phospholipids and coronary mortality. Use of ratio between phospholipid and cholesterol levels to determine successful treatment,” Northwest Medical, vol. 61, pp. 47–52, 1962.
  29. K. H. Pietiläinen, M. Sysi-Aho, A. Rissanen, et al., “Acquired obesity is associated with changes in the serum lipidomic profile independent of genetic effects-a monozygotic twin study,” PLos One, vol. 2, no. 2, article e218, 2007.
  30. S. A. Craig, “Betaine in human nutrition American,” Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 539–549, 2004.
  31. K. Sugiyama, H. Akai, and K. Muramatsu, “Effects of methionine and related compounds on plasma cholesterol level in rats fed a high cholesterol diet,” Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology, vol. 32, no. 5, pp. 537–549, 1986. View at Scopus
  32. P. Turpin, “A double blind study of the effectiveness of Beaufor betaine citrate ampules in the treatment of type IV hyperlipidemias,” Sem Hop, vol. 61, pp. 2420–2434, 1985.
  33. J. Odle, “Betaine and carnitine,” Feed Manage, vol. 47, pp. 25–27, 1996.
  34. A. Steiber, J. Kerner, and C. L. Hoppel, “Carnitine: a nutritional, biosynthetic, and functional perspective,” Molecular Aspects of Medicine, vol. 25, no. 5-6, pp. 455–473, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. Rinaldo, T. M. Cowan, and D. Matern, “Acylcarnitine profile analysis,” Genetics in Medicine, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 151–156, 2008.
  36. E. G. Mun, J. R. Soh, and Y. S. Cha, “L-carnitine reduces obesity caused by high-fat diet in C57BL/6J mice,” Food Science and Biotechnology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 228–233, 2007. View at Scopus
  37. Y. S. Cha, J. R. Soh, C. K. Kim, and H. Park, “Effect of carnitine and antioxidant supplementation on carnitine and lipid profiles in trained and non-trained humans,” The FASEB Journal, vol. 17, supplement 1, pp. A733–A744, 2003.
  38. J. Y. Yang, S. J. Lee, H. W. Park, and Y. S. Cha, “Effect of genistein with carnitine administration on lipid parameters and obesity in C57B1/6J mice fed a high-fat diet,” Journal of Medicinal Food, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 459–467, 2006. View at Scopus
  39. M. D. Jensen and M. W. Haymond, “Protein metabolism in obesity: effects of body fat distribution and hyperinsulinemia on leucine turnover,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 172–176, 1991. View at Scopus
  40. S. D. Lin, D. H. Tsai, and S. R. Hsu, “Association between serum uric acid level and components of the metabolic syndrome,” Journal of the Chinese Medical Association, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 512–516, 2006. View at Scopus
  41. N. Son, H. J. Hur, M. J. Sung, et al., “Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analysis of livers from aged rats,” Journal of Proteome Research, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 2551–2558, 2012.