412816.fig.003a
(a) Steady-hand eye robot
412816.fig.003b
(b) Wireless 12-legged capsule robot
Figure 3: (a) Steady-hand eye robot developed in Johns Hopkins University for retinal microsurgery. This device minimizes hand tremors by sharing the instrument control between the surgeon and the robotic manipulator, allowing precise and steady motion [7]. (b) Pill-size endoscopic capsule robot developed by Sant’Anna School of Advanced Studies and Vanderbilt University with active control for placing its camera in a desired position and direction in the intestine [8].