Table 2: Comparison between the general components of serum and human platelet lysate and their effect on hMSC culture.

Components that play a major role in cell cultureHuman Platelet LysateHuman Serum*Umbilical Cord Blood Serum*Effects in hMSC Culture

High abundant proteins
(i) Albumin++Major binding protein [40]
(ii) Transferrin++Iron transporter [41]
(iii) Fibronectin++Cell Adhesion and Migration [42]

Growth factors and cytokines
(i) Epidermal growth factor (EGF)+++Proliferation and differentiation
(ii) Fibroblast growth factor (FGF) +1 +2Proliferation, differentiation, and migration
(iii) Nerve growth factor (NGF)++Regulation of apoptosis
(iv) Vascular endothelial cell growth factor (VEGF)+3 +1 +2Proliferation and migration
(v) Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)+3++Proliferation and migration
(vi) Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs)+3++Proliferation and migration
(vii) Transforming growth factors (TGFs)+3++Proliferation4 and cell-cell adhesion
(viii) Interleukins+++Maintenance of stemness
(ix) Interferons+++Differentiation and MHC antigen regulation

References[37, 38][39][39][36, 37, 4346]

1Released as a result of injury in the body.
2May be found due to its role in foetal development.
3Found in higher concentrations.
4Higher concentrations inhibit cell proliferation.
*The components of the serum have been identified but have not been characterized. Protein precursors required for maintaining foetal conditions are found only in umbilical cord blood serum [47]. The top 5 abundant proteins present in UCBS and their molecular functions are listed in Table 3.