- About this Journal ·
- Abstracting and Indexing ·
- Aims and Scope ·
- Article Processing Charges ·
- Author Guidelines ·
- Bibliographic Information ·
- Citations to this Journal ·
- Contact Information ·
- Editorial Board ·
- Editorial Workflow ·
- Free eTOC Alerts ·
- Publication Ethics ·
- Recently Accepted Articles ·
- Reviewers Acknowledgment ·
- Submit a Manuscript ·
- Subscription Information ·
- Table of Contents
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 183616, 10 pages
Prevention and Treatment of Venous Thromboembolism with New Oral Anticoagulants: A Practical Update for Clinicians
1Division of Hematology and Oncology, The Brooklyn Hospital Center, 121 Dekalb Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA
2Section of Thrombosis and Benign Hematology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Unit 1464, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA
Received 7 September 2012; Revised 11 January 2013; Accepted 17 January 2013
Academic Editor: Juan F. Viles-Gonzalez
Copyright © 2013 Nay Min Tun and Thein Hlaing Oo. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Traditional anticoagulants, such as warfarin and enoxaparin, have several limitations, including parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment, which may limit optimal patient care. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), have been developed to overcome these drawbacks, and thereby improve patient care. Several of these agents have been approved for use in the prevention and treatment of venous and/or systemic thromboembolism. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the available clinical trial data for these new oral anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism and a practical update for clinicians.
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) comprises deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE). Although the exact incidence of VTE is not known, it is estimated to affect 900,000 patients each year in the United States . Approximately one-third of these cases are fatal pulmonary emboli, and the remaining two-thirds are nonfatal episodes of symptomatic DVT or PE . VTE is the second most common cause of extended hospital stay and the third most common cause of in-hospital mortality . Because it causes considerable morbidity and mortality, VTE places a substantial burden on healthcare resources [3, 4].
Without thromboprophylaxis, the incidence of hospital-acquired DVT based on objective diagnostic screening is 10–40% among medical or general surgical patients and 40–60% among patients who have undergone major orthopedic surgery such as total knee replacement (TKR), total hip replacement (THR), and hip fracture surgery . Patients with cancer are at a greater risk of new or recurrent VTE than patients without cancer. VTE risk is 3- to 5-fold higher in cancer patients who are undergoing surgery and 6.5-fold higher in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy than in patients who do not have cancer [6, 7].
The efficacy of traditional anticoagulants in preventing VTE in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery and in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients is well established [5, 8–11]. However, these agents have several limitations that may limit optimal patient care, such as their parenteral administration, need for laboratory monitoring, and ongoing dose adjustment (Table 1) [12–16]. Newer oral anticoagulants, such as direct thrombin inhibitors (e.g., dabigatran etexilate) and direct factor Xa inhibitors (e.g., rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban), have been developed to overcome these drawbacks, and thereby improve patient care. Their pharmacologic targets in the coagulation cascade are described in Figure 1, and their general pharmacologic characteristics are summarized in Table 2. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the available clinical trial data for these new oral anticoagulants from the perspective of prevention and treatment of VTE and to provide a practical update for clinicians.
2. Direct Thrombin Inhibitors
Thrombin is the final mediator in the coagulation cascade that facilitates the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin (Figure 1). Thrombin also activates factor V, factor VIII, and platelet-bound factor XI, which generate additional thrombin . Moreover, thrombin is a potent activator of platelets [17, 18]. Direct thrombin inhibitors inactivate fibrin-bound thrombin, which is an important trigger of thrombus expansion, and also directly inactivate free thrombin .
2.1. Dabigatran Etexilate
Dabigatran is a potent, competitive, reversible, thrombin inhibitor that binds directly to the active binding site of free or fibrin-bound thrombin in a concentration-dependent manner [20, 21]. After oral administration, dabigatran etexilate is absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and rapidly hydrolyzed by nonspecific esterases in the gut, plasma, and liver to its active form, dabigatran . Peak plasma concentration is achieved 0.5–2 hours after administration of the drug . It has a half-life of 12–17 hours , an absolute bioavailability of 3–7%, and approximately 35% plasma protein binding . Approximately 80% of dabigatran is excreted by the kidneys . Dabigatran etexilate, but not dabigatran, is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an intestinal drug transporter, and its absorption is influenced by a number of P-gp inhibitors and inducers. Neither dabigatran etexilate nor dabigatran is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system. In addition, dabigatran does not seem to inhibit or induce cytochrome P450 enzyme activity. Dabigatran induces dose-proportional and near-linear increases in activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT), and ecarin clotting time (ECT) .
2.1.2. Primary VTE Prevention after Major Orthopedic Surgery
The use of dabigatran etexilate as a VTE prophylactic agent in major orthopedic surgery was evaluated in four phase III randomized, double-blind, noninferiority studies, the RE-MOBILIZE, REMODEL, RE-NOVATE, and RE-NOVATE II trials. The RE-MOBILIZE study indicated that over 12–15 days of treatment, dabigatran etexilate (150 mg or 220 mg once daily) was not as effective as enoxaparin (30 mg twice daily) in preventing total VTE and all-cause mortality in patients undergoing TKR . However, the REMODEL study demonstrated that over 6–10 days of treatment, dabigatran etexilate (220 mg or 150 mg once daily) was noninferior to enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) for the prevention of VTE in patients undergoing TKR . There was no significant difference in the frequency of major bleeding or overall rate of adverse events between either dose of dabigatran etexilate and enoxaparin. Similar findings were reported by the RE-NOVATE trial in patients who underwent THR and used extended VTE prophylaxis (for 28–35 days) . The RE-NOVATE II trial again demonstrated that extended prophylaxis with oral dabigatran etexilate (220 mg once daily) was as effective as subcutaneous enoxaparin (40 mg once daily) in reducing the risk of VTE after THR, and superior to enoxaparin in reducing the risk of major VTE, with similar safety profiles .
Friedman et al. performed a pooled analysis of the RE-MOBLIZE, RE-MODEL, and RE-NOVATE trials and concluded that oral dabigatran etexilate doses of 150 mg or 220 mg daily were each as effective as 40 mg enoxaparin given subcutaneously once daily or 30 mg of enoxaparin given subcutaneously twice daily in reducing the risk of major VTE and VTE-related mortality after hip or knee replacement with a similar bleeding profile . A similar pooled analysis by Huisman et al. of the RE-MOBILIZE, RE-MODEL, and RE-NOVATE studies demonstrated similar results . Wolowacz et al. performed a meta-analysis of the RE-MODEL, RE-NOVATE, and RE-MOBILIZE trials and found no significant differences between the treatments with respect to VTE and bleeding endpoints .
2.1.3. Treatment and Secondary Prevention of VTE
The RE-COVER study investigated the efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate (150 mg twice daily) versus warfarin (target international normalized ratio (INR) 2-3) in the treatment of acute VTE for 6 months. This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial reported that a fixed dose of dabigatran etexilate was as effective as warfarin in the treatment of VTE (hazard ratio with dabigatran etexilate for recurrent VTE, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.65–1.84) and had a safety profile similar to that of warfarin .
Two other phase III randomized double-blind clinical trials assessed the efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate for the extended treatment of VTE. In the RESONATE study, dabigatran etexilate (150 mg twice daily) was compared to placebo for an additional 6 months in patients who completed 6–18 months of treatment with a vitamin K antagonist . Compared with placebo, dabigatran etexilate had a relative risk reduction of 92% for recurrent VTE without an increase in major bleeding events, although the incidence of clinically relevant bleeding was more frequent in the dabigatran etexilate group. In the REMEDY study, patients with VTE who had completed 3–12 months of anticoagulant therapy were randomized to treatment with dabigatran etexilate (150 mg twice daily) or warfarin (target INR 2-3) for an additional 6–36 months to prevent recurrent VTE and VTE-related death . The study revealed that recurrent VTE events were more frequent in the dabigatran etexilate group than in the warfarin group (1.8% versus 1.3%; hazard ratio 1.44; ). However, dabigatran etexilate was associated with a lower risk for bleeding than warfarin was (hazard ratio 0.71; 95% CI, 0.61–0.83). On the other hand, the incidence of acute coronary events in the dabigatran etexilate group was significantly higher than that in the warfarin group (0.9% versus 0.2%; ).
2.1.4. Practical Information
Dabigatran etexilate is currently approved in Europe and Canada for the prevention of VTE in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement [23, 35, 36]. However, it is not indicated for the treatment or secondary prevention of VTE (Table 4).
For the prevention of VTE after TKR, dabigatran etexilate at a dose of 110 mg should be given within 1–4 hours of the completion of surgery, and then continued at a dose of 220 mg once daily for 10 days . For the prevention of VTE after THR, a similar dosing of dabigatran etexilate should be given for 28–35 days . For both types of surgery, treatment with dabigatran etexilate should be delayed if patients are not hemodynamically stable or if hemostasis cannot be achieved within the first day after surgery. If dabigatran etexilate is delayed beyond the first day of surgery, the starting dose should be 220 mg orally once daily.
Treatment with dabigatran etexilate is contraindicated in patients with a creatinine clearance (CrCl) < 30 mL/min . For patients with a CrCl of 30–50 mL/min, the recommended dose is 75 mg given 1–4 hours after surgery and 150 mg daily thereafter . In patients >75 years of age, the recommended dose for VTE prevention is similar to that of patients with a CrCl of 30–50 mL/min . The use of dabigatran etexilate is not recommended in patients who have postoperative indwelling epidural catheters. In these patients, administration of the first dose of dabigatran etexilate should be delayed until at least 2 hours after the catheter is removed .
Dabigatran etexilate can be kept for 4 months once the bottle is opened. Patients should be advised to not store dabigatran etexilate in any other containers, such as pill organizers, and pharmacists should always dispense dabigatran etexilate in the original bottle in order to protect from moisture [23, 37]. Dabigatran etexilate is not currently approved for the treatment of VTE.
3. Factor Xa Inhibitors
Factor Xa is the gatekeeper at the convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways (Figure 1). It facilitates the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin, which leads to the generation of over 1000 times more thrombin molecules owing to the amplification nature of the coagulation cascade . Because it is the primary and rate-limiting source of amplification in the coagulation cascade, factor Xa is an attractive target for anticoagulant treatment.
Rivaroxaban is a potent oral anticoagulant that directly and selectively inhibits free and clot-bound factor Xa. The drug demonstrates stable, dose-dependent, predictable pharmacokinetics with a fast onset-offset of action. The maximum concentrations of rivaroxaban occur 2–4 hours after oral intake. It has variable absolute oral bioavailability depending on the dose (80–100% for a 10 mg dose and 66% for a 20 mg dose), with a half-life of 5–9 hours in healthy subjects and 11–13 hours in elderly subjects [39–42]. Rivaroxaban exhibits a plasma protein binding percentage of approximately 92–95% and is metabolism via CYP3A4/5- and CYP2J2-dependent mechanisms . Thirty percent of the drug is renally excreted as inactive metabolites, whereas 30–40% of the drug is renally excreted and the remainder is excreted in the feces as unchanged drug [43, 44]. Because the intestinal excretion appears to be mediated by P-gp, potent P-gp inhibitors may increase the drug concentrations . Rivaroxaban does not inhibit other serine proteases such as trypsin .
3.1.2. Primary VTE Prevention in Patients after Major Orthopedic Surgery
Use of rivaroxaban as a VTE prophylactic agent in major orthopedic surgery was evaluated in four phase III randomized, double-blind trials: the RECORD1 and RECORD2 trials, which evaluated the drug’s use following THR, and the RECORD3 and RECORD4 trials, which evaluated the drug’s use following TKR [47–50]. The RECORD1 study compared rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily for 35 days) to enoxaparin (40 mg once daily for 35 days) . The RECORD2 study compared rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily for 31–39 days) with enoxaparin (40 mg once daily for 10–14 days followed by placebo) . The RECORD3 study compared rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily for 10–14 days) with enoxaparin (40 mg once daily for 10–14 days), and the RECORD4 study compared rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily for 10–14 days) with enoxaparin (30 mg twice daily for 10–14 days) [49, 50]. In all four trials, rivaroxaban was reported to be superior to enoxaparin in terms of the primary efficacy outcome (composite of any DVT, nonfatal PE, and all-cause mortality), without significant differences in the rates of major bleeding [47–50].
Huisman et al. performed a pooled analysis of the RECORD1, RECORD3, and RECORD4 studies and found that the risk of symptomatic VTE plus all-cause mortality among patients treated with enoxaparin was 2-fold higher than that among patients treated with rivaroxaban (1.2% versus 0.6%; odds ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.17; ) . The composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was significantly lower in patients treated with enoxaparin versus rivaroxaban (2.5% versus 3.1%; odds ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.62–0.99; ). Turpie et al. also performed a pooled analysis of the four RECORD studies  and concluded that the composite risk of symptomatic VTE and all-cause mortality after elective THA or TKA in patients treated with rivaroxaban was significantly lower than in patients treated with enoxaparin. These findings were consistent across patient subgroups, irrespective of age, sex, body weight, or creatinine clearance. The rate of bleeding in patients receiving rivaroxaban was slightly higher than that in patients receiving enoxaparin; however, fewer serious adverse events were observed in patients receiving rivaroxaban than in patients receiving enoxaparin . Performing separate meta-analyses of dabigatran and rivaroxaban and comparing the results provided an indirect comparison of the efficacy and safety profiles of these agents in the prevention of VTE, which suggested that dabigatran and rivaroxaban might not differ in efficacy or safety profile outcomes in the prevention of VTE .
3.1.3. Primary VTE Prevention in Hospitalized Acutely Ill Medical Patients
The MAGELLAN trial was a randomized, parallel-group efficacy and safety study of rivaroxaban for the prevention of VTE in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients . The study compared oral rivaroxaban (10 mg once daily for days) with subcutaneous enoxaparin (40 mg once daily for days) followed by placebo and found that rivaroxaban was noninferior in reducing the risk of VTE at day 10. At day 35, extended thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban was superior to enoxaparin followed by placebo in reducing the risk of VTE. Overall rates of clinically relevant bleeding were low in both arms, but bleeding was significantly higher in the rivaroxaban arm across the entire study period. Rates of other adverse events, including liver and cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality were similar in both arms.
3.1.4. Treatment and Secondary Prevention of VTE
Three randomized phase III clinical trials, the EINSTEIN-DVT, EINSTEIN-PE, and EINSTEIN-Extension studies, evaluated the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in the setting of the treatment and secondary prevention of VTE. In the EINSTEIN-DVT study, rivaroxaban (15 mg twice daily for 3 weeks followed by 20 mg daily) was compared with enoxaparin followed by a vitamin K antagonist, for 3–12 months, in patients with acute symptomatic DVT (without PE) . Rivaroxaban was found to have noninferior efficacy in preventing symptomatic recurrent DVT (2.1% versus 3.0%; hazard ratio 0.68; ) with a similar safety profile. Using a similar treatment approach, the recently completed EINSTEIN-PE trial compared rivaroxaban with standard therapy (enoxaparin followed by a vitamin K antagonist) for 3–12 months in patients with acute symptomatic PE (with or without DVT) . The results suggested that rivaroxaban is noninferior to standard therapy (noninferiority margin, 2.0; ) for preventing symptomatic recurrent VTE, with major bleeding rates significantly higher in the standard-therapy group. In the EINSTEIN-Extension study, an additional 6–12-month course of rivaroxaban (20 mg once daily) was compared with placebo in patients who had completed 6–12 months of anticoagulant treatment for VTE . As expected, rivaroxaban had superior efficacy compared to placebo with 82% relative risk reduction in the recurrence of VTE. The rate of clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding was higher in the rivaroxaban group (5.4% versus 1.2%).
3.1.5. Practical Information
In the United States, Canada, and Europe, rivaroxaban is approved for the prevention of VTE in patients who have undergone elective THR or TKR surgery. In the United States, rivaroxaban is approved to treat DVT or PE, and to reduce the risk of recurrent DVT and PE following initial treatment, whereas in Europe and Canada it is indicated for the treatment of DVT and secondary prevention of VTE (Table 4) [42, 57, 58].
The recommended doses of rivaroxaban for VTE prevention in patients following THR or TKR are 10 mg orally once daily for 35 days and 10 mg orally once daily for 12–14 days, respectively [42, 57, 58]. The initial dose should be taken at least 6–10 hours after surgery once hemostasis has been established. When rivaroxaban is used to treat DVT or to prevent recurrent DVT and PE, the recommended dose for the initial treatment of acute DVT is 15 mg twice daily for the first 3 weeks followed by 20 mg once daily .
Rivaroxaban is contraindicated in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh B) or severe (Child-Pugh C) hepatic impairment, patients with any hepatic disease associated with coagulopathy, and patients with severe renal impairment (CrCl < 30 mL/min) . Patients who develop acute renal failure while on rivaroxaban should discontinue the treatment. It is not recommended to use rivaroxaban concomitantly with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, lopinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and conivaptan) or with combined P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inducers (e.g., carbamazepine, phenytoin, rifampin, and St. John’s wort) . If anticoagulation must be discontinued to reduce the risk of bleeding from surgery or other procedures, rivaroxaban should be stopped at least 24 hours before the procedure. An epidural catheter should not be removed earlier than 18 hours after the last administration of rivaroxaban. The next rivaroxaban dose should not be administered earlier than 6 hours after the removal of the catheter . If traumatic puncture occurs during epidural catheter insertion, the administration of rivaroxaban should be delayed for 24 hours .
Apixaban is a potent, orally active inhibitor of free and clot-bound coagulation factor Xa [59–62]. Apixaban binds directly to the active site of factor Xa and exerts anticoagulant effects by inhibiting the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin. In addition, it inhibits trypsin and thrombin generation. Apixaban has an oral bioavailability of approximately 50% and a high protein binding percentage of 87% . It reaches peak concentrations 3-4 hours after administration and has a half-life of 8–15 hours [62, 63]. Apixaban is predominantly eliminated through the cytochrome P450 CYP3A4/5-related pathway. Twenty-seven percent of the drug is excreted renally . Apixaban is a substrate of transport proteins, P-gp, and breast cancer resistance protein .
3.2.2. Primary VTE Prevention in Patients after Major Orthopedic Surgery
Apixaban was evaluated in three phase III clinical trials; the ADVANCE-1 and ADVANCE-2 trials which evaluated the use of apixaban following TKR for 10–14 days, and the ADVANCE-3 trial which evaluated the use of apixaban following THR for 35 days. In the ADVANCE-1 trial, apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily for 10–14 days) was compared with enoxaparin (30 mg twice daily for 10–14 days). Apixaban did not meet the prespecified statistical criteria for noninferiority in terms of efficacy (composite of any DVT, nonfatal PE, and all-cause mortality), but its use was associated with lower rates of clinically relevant bleeding . However, in both the ADVANCE-2 and ADVANCE-3 trials, apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily) showed superior efficacy compared to enoxaparin (40 mg daily) [65, 66]. There were no significant differences in the rates of major bleeding between apixaban and enoxaparin [64, 66].
Huang et al. performed a meta-analysis of the ADVANCE-1 and ADVANCE-2 trials and a phase II study of apixaban in patients undergoing TKR surgery and concluded that apixaban is noninferior to subcutaneous enoxaparin when used for the same duration and has a considerable advantage regarding the safety profile of major bleeding .
3.2.3. Primary VTE Prevention in Hospitalized Acutely Ill Medical Patients
The ADOPT study was a double-blind, double-dummy, placebo-controlled trial that compared extended-duration apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily for 30 days) with standard-duration enoxaparin (40 mg daily for 6–14 days) . This study indicated that, in medically ill patients, an extended course of thromboprophylaxis with apixaban was not superior to a shorter course with enoxaparin. Apixaban was associated with significantly more major bleeding events than enoxaparin.
3.2.4. Primary VTE Prevention in Patients with Metastatic Cancer Undergoing Chemotherapy
Levine et al. performed a randomized, double-blind phase II dose-ranging study investigating the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus placebo in patients with metastatic cancer undergoing chemotherapy . The treatment duration was 12 weeks. The authors concluded that apixaban was well tolerated in their study population, and supported pursuing phase III clinical trials of apixaban in preventing VTE in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. However, it should be noted that the study protocol was potentially selected for patients at low risk of bleeding (e.g., exclusion of patients receiving antiplatelets or bevacizumab or those with prolonged coagulation times) and the sample size is small.
3.2.5. Treatment and Secondary Prevention of VTE
The BOTTICELLI trial was a phase II dose-ranging study assessing the efficacy and safety of apixaban versus standard therapy (low molecular weight heparin followed by a vitamin K antagonist) in the treatment of patients with acute symptomatic DVT for 84–91 days . The study concluded that a fixed dose of apixaban may be given as the sole treatment for DVT. Two ongoing phase III clinical trials, the AMPLIFY (NCT00643201) and AMPLIFY-EXT (NCT00633893) trials, evaluate the efficacy and safety of apixaban for the standard duration and extended duration treatment of DVT or PE, respectively.
3.2.6. Practical Information
Apixaban is currently approved in Canada and Europe for the prevention of VTE in adults following THR or TKR [62, 71]. In both these patient groups, apixaban (2.5 mg orally twice daily) should be started 12–24 hours after the operation and then continued daily for 10–14 days in TKR patients or for 32–38 days in THR patients [62, 71]. Apixaban is contraindicated in patients who have liver disease associated with coagulopathy and a clinically relevant bleeding risk, and in patients who are undergoing concomitant systemic treatment with strong inhibitors of both cytochrome P450 CYP3A4 and P-gp .
Edoxaban is an orally active, competitive, direct inhibitor of factor Xa that is currently undergoing phase III clinical trials for the prevention of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation and for the prevention and treatment of VTE. Edoxaban has more than 10000-fold greater selectivity for factor Xa than thrombin . With a time to peak plasma concentration of 1-2 hours, the anticoagulant effect of edoxaban has a rapid onset and is sustained for up to 24 hours . Similar to apixaban, edoxaban has absolute oral bioavailability of approximately 50% and a half-life of 9–11 hours in young healthy subjects. Thirty-five percent of the drug is renally excreted (24% as active metabolite) and 62% is excreted via feces . The metabolism in liver microsomes is mediated mainly by CYP3A4-related pathways. Because edoxaban is a substrate of P-gp, strong inhibitors of P-gp could lead to a higher concentration of the drug . Edoxaban can be administered with or without food .
3.3.2. Primary VTE Prevention in Patients after Major Orthopedic Surgery
A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-ranging phase IIb trial, which was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of edoxaban for the prevention of VTE in Japanese patients undergoing TKR, revealed that edoxaban demonstrated significant dose-dependent reductions in VTE in patients undergoing TKR and had a bleeding incidence similar to that of placebo . Another randomized, double-blind, dose-response phase II trial of edoxaban in patients undergoing elective THR also showed that edoxaban had a significant dose-response relationship for efficacy across the once-daily dose groups in preventing VTE, and a low bleeding incidence similar to dalteparin .
A pooled analysis of two phase III clinical trials in the Japanese population, the STARS E-3 trial, which investigated edoxaban following TKR and STARS J-5 trial, which investigated edoxaban following THR revealed that the rate of VTE events among patients receiving edoxaban (30 mg once daily) was significantly lower than that among patients receiving enoxaparin (20 mg twice daily) (5.1% versus 10.7%, ) and that the groups’ rates of adverse events did not differ significantly (4.6% versus 3.7%, ) . Further clinical investigation of the efficacy and safety of once-daily edoxaban in comparison with low-molecular weight heparin/warfarin in the treatment and prevention of VTE in patients with acute DVT and/or PE is being conducted in the HOKUSAI-VTE phase III trial (NCT00986154).
3.3.3. Practical Information
Edoxaban is currently approved in Japan for the prevention of VTE after major orthopedic surgery . However, because enoxaparin 20 mg twice daily is not a popular dosing regimen outside Japan, it may not be appropriate to extrapolate the results of the STARS trials to other patient populations. Further phase III studies in wider population are required before the drug can be extensively approved for use in the prevention of VTE.
4. Monitoring the Anticoagulant Effect
All new oral anticoagulants have a predictive dose response, which permits standard dosing without the need for routine monitoring. All oral factor Xa inhibitors cause a dose-dependent increase in aPTT, PT, INR, and one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time, especially at supratherapeutic doses [80–82]. Antifactor Xa activity was suggested to be a better indicator of plasma concentration of oral factor Xa inhibitors than aPTT, PT, or INR [80, 82]. In contrast, dabigatran significantly alters aPTT, ECT, TT, and, to a lesser extent, PT and INR values at therapeutic doses . Measurement of TT or ECT may be used to evaluate the anticoagulant effect of dabigatran in patients who develop bleeding complications . New tests are currently being developed to enable the exact quantification of the anticoagulant effect of oral direct factor Xa inhibitor and of dabigatran therapy by means of chromogenic Factor Xa assays  and by specific tests such as HemoClot thrombin inhibitor assay , respectively.
5. Management of Bleeding Complications
Bleeding complications are the main concern in patients receiving anticoagulant therapy. Currently there is no specific antidote to reverse the effects of new oral anticoagulants. In cases of mild to moderate bleeding, routine management involving stoppage of the inciting oral anticoagulant, mechanical compression, surgical, endoscopic, or interventional therapy, and hemodynamic stabilization will suffice. If severe bleeding occurs, one should consider using fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates, recombinant factor VIIa, or factor eight inhibitor bypassing activator [83, 86]. In patients receiving dabigatran, hemodialysis can be used to reduce the drug level . In case of drug overdose, activated charcoal may be given within 3 hours of oral anticoagulant intake to reduce gastrointestinal absorption. Antibodies capable of neutralizing dabigatran are being developed .
6. New Oral Anticoagulants in the Pipeline
Other newer oral anticoagulants that are currently under evaluation in clinical trials include a direct thrombin inhibitor, AZD0837 (AstraZeneca, phase II), and several direct factor Xa inhibitors, betrixaban (Portola Pharmaceuticals, phase III), eribaxaban (Pfizer, phase II), letaxaban (Takeda Pharmaceuticals, phase II), and LY-517717 (Lilly, phase II) .
Although the half-lives of the new oral anticoagulants vary, they all reach maximum concentrations within approximately 1–4 hours. Rivaroxaban and edoxaban offer the benefit of single daily dosing. The benefits and limitations of the new oral anticoagulants are summarized in Table 3, and their approved indications for use in different countries are given in Table 4.
Dabigatran etexilate (150 mg or 220 mg daily; RE-MOBILIZE study) and apixaban (2.5 mg twice daily; ADVANCE-1 study) failed to show noninferiority compared to enoxaparin (30 mg twice daily) in preventing VTE in patients after TKR [25, 64]. However, the RECORD4 trial revealed that (rivaroxaban 10 mg once daily) conferred superior efficacy in a similar clinical setting without significant increase in major adverse events . Moreover, rivaroxaban was found to be less costly and more effective than dabigatran or enoxaparin for use in thromboprophylaxis in patients after TKR or THR in a cost-effectiveness analysis . These findings may be in favor of rivaroxaban as the preferred prophylactic antithrombotic agent in patients undergoing hip or knee replacement. In contrast, studies of edoxaban in the non-Japanese population should be done to establish wider clinical applicability in a similar setting.
In the treatment and secondary prevention of VTE, both dabigatran etexilate twice daily and rivaroxaban once daily exhibited noninferior efficacy compared to warfarin when given for 3–12 months [32, 54, 55]. However, the REMEDY trial revealed that dabigatran was less effective and associated with more acute coronary events compared to warfarin when given for an extended period of up to 36 months for the prevention of recurrent VTE . There was no similar study done with rivaroxaban. Two phase III clinical trials, the AMPLIFY (NCT00643201) and AMPLIFY-EXT (NCT00633893) trials, are underway to evaluate the efficacy and safety of apixaban for the treatment and secondary prevention of VTE. Similarly, a phase III multinational study of edoxaban is currently under way (NCT00986154).
Extended thromboprophylaxis with rivaroxaban (as per the MAGELLAN study findings) , but not apixaban (as per the ADOPT study findings) , was found to be superior to enoxaparin followed by placebo for primary VTE prevention in hospitalized acutely ill medical patients. Both rivaroxaban and apixaban were associated with significantly more bleeding complications than enoxaparin. Thus, current evidence does not support the routine use of the new oral anticoagulants for thromboprophylaxis in hospitalized medical patients.
Conflict of Interests
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.
The authors thank Joe Munch in MD Anderson’s Department of Scientific Publications for editing this paper.
- J. A. Heit, A. T. Cohen, and F. A. Anderson, “Estimated annual number of incident and recurrent, non-fatal and fatal venous thromboembolism (VTE) events in the US,” ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, vol. 106, no. 11, p. 910, 2005.
- C. Zhan and M. R. Miller, “Excess length of stay, charges, and mortality attributable to medical injuries during hospitalization,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 14, pp. 1868–1874, 2003.
- A. C. Spyropoulos and C. Mahan, “Venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in the medical patient: controversies and perspectives,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 122, no. 12, pp. 1077–1084, 2009.
- P. P. Dobesh, “Economic burden of venous thromboembolism in hospitalized patients,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 943–953, 2009.
- W. H. Geerts, D. Bergqvist, G. F. Pineo et al., “Prevention of venous thromboembolism: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition),” Chest, vol. 133, supplement, no. 6, pp. 381–453, 2008.
- J. A. Heit, M. D. Silverstein, D. N. Mohr, T. M. Petterson, W. M. O'Fallon, and L. J. Melton III, “Risk factors for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism: a population-based case-control study,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 160, no. 6, pp. 809–815, 2000.
- A. A. Khorana, “Cancer and thrombosis: implications of published guidelines for clinical practice,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 20, no. 10, pp. 1619–1630, 2009.
- A. T. Cohen, B. L. Davidson, A. S. Gallus et al., “Efficacy and safety of fondaparinux for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in older acute medical patients: randomised placebo controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 332, no. 7537, pp. 325–327, 2006.
- M. M. Samama, A. T. Cohen, J. Y. Darmon et al., “A comparison of enoxaparin with placebo for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients. Prophylaxis in Medical Patients with Enoxaparin Study Group,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 341, no. 11, pp. 793–800, 1999.
- A. Leizorovicz, A. T. Cohen, A. G. G. Turpie, C. G. Olsson, P. T. Vaitkus, and S. Z. Goldhaber, “Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of dalteparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in acutely ill medical patients,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 874–879, 2004.
- R. D. Hull, S. M. Schellong, V. F. Tapson et al., “Extended-duration venous thromboembolism prophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients with recently reduced mobility: a randomized trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 153, no. 1, pp. 8–18, 2010.
- S. A. Spinler, A. K. Wittkowsky, E. A. Nutescu, and M. A. Smythe, “Anticoagulation monitoring part 2: unfractionated heparin and low-molecular-weight heparin,” Annals of Pharmacotherapy, vol. 39, no. 7-8, pp. 1275–1285, 2005.
- J. Ansell, J. Hirsh, E. Hylek, A. Jacobson, M. Crowther, and G. Palareti, “Pharmacology and management of the vitamin K antagonists: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (8th Edition),” Chest, vol. 133, supplement, no. 6, pp. 160–198, 2008.
- C. Becattini, A. Lignani, and G. Agnelli, “New anticoagulants for the prevention of venous thromboembolism,” Drug Design, Development and Therapy, vol. 4, pp. 49–60, 2010.
- A. C. Spyropoulos, “Outpatient-based primary and secondary thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin,” Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/Hemostasis, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 63–74, 2008.
- J. Hirsh, M. O'Donnell, and J. W. Eikelboom, “Beyond unfractionated heparin and warfarin: current and future advances,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 552–560, 2007.
- J. I. Weitz, “Factor Xa or thrombin: is thrombin a better target?” Journal Thrombosis Haemostasis, vol. 5, Supplement 1, pp. 65–67, 2007.
- T. Mavrakanas and H. Bounameaux, “The potential role of new oral anticoagulants in the prevention and treatment of thromboembolism,” Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 130, no. 1, pp. 46–58, 2011.
- R. Kumar, S. Beguin, and H. C. Hemker, “The effect of fibrin clots and clot-bound thrombin on the development of platelet procoagulant activity,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 74, no. 3, pp. 962–968, 1995.
- J. Stangier, K. Rathgen, H. Stähle, D. Gansser, and W. Roth, “The pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and tolerability of dabigatran etexilate, a new oral direct thrombin inhibitor, in healthy male subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 64, no. 3, pp. 292–303, 2007.
- B. I. Eriksson and D. J. Quinlan, “Oral anticoagulants in development: focus on thromboprophylaxis in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery,” Drugs, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1411–1429, 2006.
- M. D. Ezekowitz, S. Connolly, A. Parekh et al., “Rationale and design of RE-LY: randomized evaluation of long-term anticoagulant therapy, warfarin, compared with dabigatran,” The American Heart Journal, vol. 157, no. 5, pp. 805–810, 2009.
- “Labeling revision for PRADAXA: hightlights of prescribing information,” 2012, http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2012/022512s011lbl.pdf.
- B. I. Eriksson, D. J. Quinlan, and J. I. Weitz, “Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors in development,” Clinical Pharmacokinetics, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 1–22, 2009.
- J. S. Ginsberg, B. L. Davidson, P. C. Comp et al., “Oral thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate vs North American enoxaparin regimen for prevention of venous thromboembolism after knee arthroplasty surgery,” The Journal of Arthroplasty, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–9, 2009.
- B. I. Eriksson, O. E. Dahl, N. Rosencher et al., “Oral dabigatran etexilate vs. subcutaneous enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total knee replacement: the RE-MODEL randomized trial,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 5, no. 11, pp. 2178–2185, 2007.
- B. I. Eriksson, O. E. Dahl, N. Rosencher et al., “Dabigatran etexilate versus enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip replacement: a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9591, pp. 949–956, 2007.
- B. I. Eriksson, O. E. Dahl, M. H. Huo et al., “Oral dabigatran versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after primary total hip arthroplasty (RE-NOVATE II): a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority trial,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 721–729, 2011.
- R. J. Friedman, O. E. Dahl, N. Rosencher et al., “Dabigatran versus enoxaparin for prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee arthroplasty: a pooled analysis of three trials,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 126, no. 3, pp. 175–182, 2010.
- M. V. Huisman, D. J. Quinlan, O. E. Dahl, and S. Schulman, “Enoxaparin versus Dabigatran or rivaroxaban for thromboprophylaxis after hip or knee arthroplasty: results of separate pooled analyses of phase III multicenter randomized trials,” Circulation, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 652–660, 2010.
- S. E. Wolowacz, N. S. Roskell, J. M. Plumb, J. A. Caprini, and B. I. Eriksson, “Efficacy and safety of dabigatran etexilate for the prevention of venous thromboembolism following total hip or knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 77–85, 2009.
- S. Schulman, C. Kearon, A. K. Kakkar et al., “Dabigatran versus warfarin in the treatment of acute venous thromboembolism,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 24, pp. 2342–2352, 2009.
- S. Schulman, D. Baanstra, H. Eriksson et al., “Dabigatran versus placebo for extended maintenance therapy of venous thromboembolism,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 9, supplement 2, abstract no. 037, p. 731, 2011.
- S. Schulman, H. Eriksson, S. Z. Goldhaber, A. K. Kakkar, C. Kearon, J. Schnee, et al., “Dabigatran or warfarin for extended maintenance therapy of venous thromboembolism,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 9, supplement 2, abstract no. 037, p. 731, 2011.
- “Pradaxa: European public assessment report (EPAR),” 2012, http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Public_assessment_report/human/000829/WC500041062.pdf.
- “PRADAX: Summary Basis of Decision (SBD),” 2012, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/prodpharma/sbd_smd_2008_pradax_114887-eng.pdf.
- “Pradaxa: EPAR—Product Information,” 2012, http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/EPAR_-_Product_Information/human/000829/WC500041059.pdf.
- K. G. Mann, “The biochemistry of coagulation,” Clinics in Laboratory Medicine, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 207–220, 1984.
- D. Kubitza, M. Becka, B. Voith, M. Zuehlsdorf, and G. Wensing, “Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of single doses of BAY 59-7939, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor,” Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 412–421, 2005.
- D. Kubitza, M. Becka, G. Wensing, B. Voith, and M. Zuehlsdorf, “Safety, pharmacodynamics, and pharmacokinetics of BAY 59-7939—An oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor—After multiple dosing in healthy male subjects,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 873–880, 2005.
- D. Kubitz, M. Becka, A. Roth, and W. Mueck, “Dose-escalation study of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rivaroxaban in healthy elderly subjects,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 2757–2765, 2008.
- “Labeling revision for Xarelto: Highlights of prescribing information,” 2012, http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2011/202439s001lbl.pdf.
- V. Laux, E. Perzborn, D. Kubitza, and F. Misselwitz, “Preclinical and clinical characteristics of rivaroxaban: a novel, oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 515–523, 2007.
- P. L. Gross and J. I. Weitz, “New anticoagulants for treatment of venous thromboembolism,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 380–386, 2008.
- J. Rautio, J. E. Humphreys, L. O. Webster et al., “In vitro P-glycoprotein inhibition assays for assessment of clinical drug interaction potential of new drug candidates: a recommendation for probe substrates,” Drug Metabolism and Disposition, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 786–792, 2006.
- S. Roehrig, A. Straub, J. Pohlmann et al., “Discovery of the novel antithrombotic agent 5-chloro-N-((5S)-2-oxo-3-[4-(3-oxomorpholin-4-yl)phenyl]-1,3-oxazolidin-5-ylmethyl)thiophene-2-carboxamide (BAY 59-7939): an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor,” Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 48, no. 19, pp. 5900–5908, 2005.
- B. I. Eriksson, L. C. Borris, R. J. Friedman et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip arthroplasty,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 26, pp. 2765–2775, 2008.
- A. K. Kakkar, B. Brenner, O. E. Dahl et al., “Extended duration rivaroxaban versus short-term enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after total hip arthroplasty: a double-blind, randomised controlled trial,” The Lancet, vol. 372, no. 9632, pp. 31–39, 2008.
- M. R. Lassen, W. Ageno, L. C. Borris et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 358, no. 26, pp. 2776–2786, 2008.
- A. G. Turpie, M. R. Lassen, B. L. Davidson et al., “Rivaroxaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after total knee arthroplasty (RECORD4): a randomised trial,” The Lancet, vol. 373, no. 9676, pp. 1673–1680, 2009.
- A. G. Turpie, M. R. Lassen, B. I. Eriksson et al., “Rivaroxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism after hip or knee arthroplasty. Pooled analysis of four studies,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 444–453, 2011.
- V. Trkulja and R. Kolundžic, “Rivaroxaban vs dabigatran for thromboprophylaxis after joint-replacement surgery: exploratory indirect comparison based on metaanalysis of pivotal clinical trials,” Croatian Medical Journal, vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 113–123, 2010.
- A. T. Cohen, T. E. Spiro, H. R. Buller et al., “Extended-duration rivaroxaban thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients: MAGELLAN study protocol,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 407–416, 2011.
- R. Bauersachs, S. D. Berkowitz, B. Brenner et al., “Oral rivaroxaban for symptomatic venous thromboembolism,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 26, pp. 2499–2510, 2010.
- H. R. Buller, M. H. Prins, A. W. Lensin et al., “Oral rivaroxaban for the treatment of symptomatic pulmonary embolism,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, no. 14, pp. 1287–1297, 2012.
- H. R. Buller, “Once-daily oral rivaroxaban versus placebo in the long-term prevention of recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism. The EINSTEIN-Extension study,” in Proceedings of the 51st ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, New Orleans, La, USA, December 2009.
- “Xarelto: European public assessment report (EPAR),” 2012, http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/000944/human_med_001155.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d12.
- “XARELTO: Summary Basis of Decision (SBD),” 2012, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd_smd_2009_xarelto_119111-eng.php#a34.
- A. G. G. Turpie, “Oral, direct factor Xa inhibitors in development for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1238–1247, 2007.
- P. C. Wong, E. J. Crain, B. Xin et al., “Apixaban, an oral, direct and highly selective factor Xa inhibitor: in vitro, antithrombotic and antihemostatic studies,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 820–829, 2008.
- X. Jiang, E. J. Crain, J. M. Luettgen, W. A. Schumacher, and P. C. Wong, “Apixaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, inhibits human clot-bound factor Xa activity in vitro,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 101, no. 4, pp. 780–782, 2009.
- “Eliquis: European public assessment report (EPAR),” 2012, http://www.ema.europa.eu/ema/index.jsp?curl=pages/medicines/human/medicines/002148/human_med_001449.jsp&mid=WC0b01ac058001d124.
- C. Frost, J. Wang, S. Nepal et al., “Apixaban, an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor: single-dose safety, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and food effect in healthy subjects,” British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 476–487, 2013.
- M. R. Lassen, G. E. Raskob, A. Gallus, G. Pineo, D. Chen, and R. J. Portman, “Apixaban or enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 361, no. 6, pp. 594–604, 2009.
- M. R. Lassen, A. Gallus, G. E. Raskob, G. Pineo, D. Chen, and L. M. Ramirez, “Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after hip replacement,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 26, pp. 2487–2498, 2010.
- M. R. Lassen, G. E. Raskob, A. Gallus, G. Pineo, D. Chen, and P. Hornick, “Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis after knee replacement (ADVANCE-2): a randomised double-blind trial,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9717, pp. 807–815, 2010.
- J. Huang, Y. Cao, C. Liao, L. Wu, and F. Gao, “Apixaban versus enoxaparin in patients with total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomised trials,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 245–253, 2011.
- S. Z. Goldhaber, A. Leizorovicz, A. K. Kakkar et al., “Apixaban versus enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in medically ill patients,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 365, no. 23, pp. 2167–2177, 2011.
- M. N. Levine, C. Gu, H. A. Liebman et al., “A randomized phase II trial of apixaban for the prevention of thromboembolism in patients with metastatic cancer,” Journal Thrombosis Haemostasis, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 807–814, 2012.
- H. Buller, D. Deitchman, M. Prins, and A. Segers, “Efficacy and safety of the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban for symptomatic deep vein thrombosis. The Botticelli DVT dose-ranging study,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1313–1318, 2008.
- “ELIQUIS: Summary Basis of Decision (SBD),” 2012, http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/prodpharma/sbd-smd/drug-med/sbd_smd_2012_eliquis_141873-eng.php#a2.
- A. J. Camm and H. Bounameaux, “Edoxaban: a new oral direct factor xa inhibitor,” Drugs, vol. 71, no. 12, pp. 1503–1526, 2011.
- T. Fuji, S. Fujita, S. Tachibana, and Y. Kawai, “A dose-ranging study evaluating the oral factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban for the prevention of venous thromboembolism in patients undergoing total knee arthroplasty,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 8, no. 11, pp. 2458–2468, 2010.
- M. U. Zafar, D. A. Vorchheimer, J. Gaztanaga et al., “Antithrombotic effects of factor Xa inhibition with DU-176b: phase-I study of an oral, direct factor Xa inhibitor using an ex-vivo flow chamber,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 883–888, 2007.
- C. T. Ruff, R. P. Giugliano, E. M. Antman et al., “Evaluation of the novel factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban compared with warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation: design and rationale for the Effective aNticoaGulation with factor xA next GEneration in Atrial Fibrillation- Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction study 48 (ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48),” The American Heart Journal, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 635–e2, 2010.
- J. Mendell, M. Tachibana, M. Shi, and S. Kunitada, “Effects of food on the pharmacokinetics of edoxaban, an oral direct factor Xa inhibitor, in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 687–694, 2011.
- G. Raskob, A. T. Cohen, B. I. Eriksson et al., “Oral direct factor Xa inhibition with edoxaban for thromboprophylaxis after elective total hip replacement: a randomised double-blind dose-response study,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 642–649, 2010.
- T. Fuji, S. Fujita, S. Tachibana, and Y. Kawai, “Edoxaban versus enoxaparin for the prevention of venous thromboembolism: pooled analysis of venous thromboembolism and bleeding from STARS E-3 and STARS J-V,” in Proceedings of the 53rd ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, 2011.
- “Daiichi Sankyo Receives First Market Approval in Japan for LIXIANA (Edoxaban), a Direct Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor, for the Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism after Major Orthopedic Surgery,” 2012, http://www.daiichisankyo.com/news/20110422_305_E.pdf.
- Y. C. Barrett, Z. Wang, C. Frost, and A. Shenker, “Clinical laboratory measurement of direct factor Xa inhibitors: anti-Xa assay is preferable to prothrombin time assay,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 104, no. 6, pp. 1263–1271, 2010.
- K. Ogata, J. Mendell-Harary, M. Tachibana et al., “Clinical safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of the novel factor Xa inhibitor edoxaban in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 50, no. 7, pp. 743–753, 2010.
- J. Graff, B. Picard-Willems, and S. Harder, “Monitoring effects of direct FXa-inhibitors with a new one-step prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) assay: comparative in vitro investigation with heparin, enoxaparin, fondaparinux and DX 9065a,” International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 237–243, 2007.
- J. van Ryn, J. Stangier, S. Haertter et al., “Dabigatran etexilate—A novel, reversible, oral direct thrombin inhibitor: interpretation of coagulation assays and reversal of anticoagulant activity,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 103, no. 6, pp. 1116–1127, 2010.
- R. C. Becker, H. Yang, Y. Barrett et al., “Chromogenic laboratory assays to measure the factor Xa-inhibiting properties of apixaban–an oral, direct and selective factor Xa inhibitor,” Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 183–187, 2011.
- J. Stangier and M. Feuring, “Using the HEMOCLOT direct thrombin inhibitor assay to determine plasma concentrations of dabigatran,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 138–143, 2012.
- E. S. Eerenberg, P. W. Kamphuisen, M. K. Sijpkens, J. C. Meijers, H. R. Buller, and M. Levi, “Reversal of rivaroxaban and dabigatran by prothrombin complex concentrate: a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study in healthy subjects,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 14, pp. 1573–1579, 2011.
- J. van Ryn, J. Schurer, M. Kink-Eiband, and A. Clemens, “The successful reversal of dabigatran-induced bleeding by coagulation factor concentrates in a rat tail bleeding model do not correlate with Ex vivo markers of anticoagulation,” in Proceedings of the 53rd ASH Annual Meeting and Exposition, December 2011.
- I. Ahrens, K. Peter, G. Y. Lip, and C. Bode, “Development and clinical applications of novel oral anticoagulants. Part II. Drugs under clinical investigation,” Discovery Medicine, vol. 13, no. 73, pp. 445–450, 2012.
- L. McCullagh, L. Tilson, C. Walsh, and M. Barry, “A cost-effectiveness model comparing rivaroxaban and dabigatran etexilate with enoxaparin sodium as thromboprophylaxis after total hip and total knee replacement in the Irish healthcare setting,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 27, no. 10, pp. 829–846, 2009.