- About this Journal
- Abstracting and Indexing
- Aims and Scope
- Annual Issues
- Article Processing Charges
- Articles in Press
- Author Guidelines
- Bibliographic Information
- Citations to this Journal
- Contact Information
- Editorial Board
- Editorial Workflow
- Free eTOC Alerts
- Publication Ethics
- Reviewers Acknowledgment
- Submit a Manuscript
- Subscription Information
- Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 132793, 8 pages
Interferon-α Enhances 5′-Deoxy-5-Fluorouridine-Induced Apoptosis by ERK-Dependant Upregulation of Thymidine Phosphorylase
1Department of Medical Oncology, The First Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, China
2Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, College of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning 110001, China
Received 18 March 2013; Revised 16 July 2013; Accepted 19 July 2013
Academic Editor: Yukio Kageyama
Copyright © 2013 Yike Zhu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
5-Florouracil (5-FU) is the basic agent used in the treatment of gastric cancer. Capecitabine, a prodrug of 5-FU, displays increased antitumor efficacy compared with 5-FU in the clinic. -Deoxy-5-fluorouracil (-DFUR), the metabolite of capecitabine, is converted to 5-FU by the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP), which is present at high concentrations in human tumors. In this study, we investigated the effect of interferon-α (IFN-α) on the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to treatment with -DFUR and its relationship with TP expression. Preincubation of gastric cancer cells with IFN-α enhanced -DFUR-induced apoptosis via IFN-α-mediated upregulation of TP. The depletion of TP with small interfering RNA (siRNA) obviously inhibited IFN-α-induced upregulation of TP expression and thus prevented apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR. Treatment with IFN-α and combined IFN-α and -DFUR treatment were also associated with concomitant activation of ERK signaling. Treatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or depletion of ERK with siRNA partially reversed IFN-α-induced upregulation of TP expression, thus partially preventing apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR. Taken together, our study shows that IFN-α enhanced -DFUR-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by upregulation of TP expression, which is partially regulated by activation of ERK signaling.
Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, particularly in Eastern Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea . Although 5-florouracil- (5-FU-) based combinational chemotherapy has improved survival for patients with advanced gastric cancer, the prognosis in cases of advanced disease remains poor . A recent meta-analysis based on two large phase III REAL-2 and ML17032 trials indicated that treatment of advanced gastric cancer patients with capecitabine (an oral fluoropyrimidine carbamate) was superior to 5-FU in terms of overall survival . -Deoxy-5-fluorouridine ribose (-DFUR), the intermediate metabolite of capecitabine, is converted to 5-FU by thymidine phosphorylase (TP), an enzyme found at higher concentrations in tumors compared with normal tissues . Higher activity of TP allows -DFUR to be specifically targeted to the site of the cancer, leading to relatively high local concentrations of 5-FU in tumor cells [5, 6]. Thus, enhancing TP expression may represent an important strategy for increasing the antitumorigenic effect of -DFUR.
Interferon-α (IFN-α) plays an essential role in antiviral responses and has been used clinically for the treatment of viral infections . When administered alone, IFN-α can improve the immune function of the body and has been used for the treatment of myeloproliferative diseases in addition to solid tumors, such as renal cell carcinoma and melanoma [8–10]. In addition, chemotherapy with sequential IFN-α treatment prolonged survival in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma . Colon cancer patients treated with both IFN-α and 5-FU showed a trend towards improved recurrence-free survival . However, the efficacy of combination IFN-α and chemotherapy in gastric cancer has not been reported. Previous studies have shown that IFN-α enhances the antitumor effect of capecitabine on hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice . Moreover, IFN-α has been shown to increase the sensitivity of renal carcinoma cells to -DFUR-induced apoptosis by enhanced TP expression . However, whether the induction of TP mediated by IFN-α is a common phenomenon in other cancers remains unknown. Moreover, the mechanism by which IFN-α upregulates TP expression remains to be elucidated.
In the present study, we show that IFN-α sensitizes gastric cancer cells to -DFUR-induced apoptosis by upregulation of TP expression, which is partially regulated by activation of the extracellular-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway.
2.1. Reagents and Antibodies
Recombinant human IFN-α was purchased from Prospec. -DFUR was provided by Nippon Roche Co., Ltd (Tokyo, Japan). 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), and the specific ERK inhibitor PD98059 were from Sigma (St. Louis, MO, USA). Antibodies specific for TP (sc-47702, Lot no. B0309), ERK (sc-153, Lot no. C0410), p-ERK 1/2 (Thr 202/Tyr 204)-R (sc-16982-R, Lot no. I1312), and Actin-R (sc-1616-R, Lot no. G0612) were purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (Santa Cruz, CA, USA). Antibodies specific for Akt (9272S, Lot no. 24) and p-Akt (Ser 473) (9271L, Lot no. 13) were from Cell Signaling Technology (Danvers, MA, USA).
2.2. Cell Culture
The human gastric cell lines SGC7901 and MGC803 were obtained from Academy of Military Medical Science (Beijing, China). SGC7901 and MGC803 cells were grown in RPMI 1640 (Rosewell Park Memorial Institute) medium containing 10% heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS) in a 37°C humidified incubator with a mixture of 95% air and 5% CO2.
2.3. MTT Assay
The cells were seeded in 96-well plates and then exposed to IFN-α and/or -DFUR. Thereafter, 25 μL of MTT solution (5 mg/mL) was added to each well, and the cells were incubated for another 4 h at 37°C. Then, the cells were lysed in 200 μL of DMSO, and the optical density (OD) was measured at 570 nm with a microplate reader (Model 550, Bio-Rad Laboratories, USA). IC50 values were calculated using the probit model. The inhibition rate of cell proliferation was calculated as follows: inhibition rate (%) = 1 − A570 (test)/A570 (control) × 100%.
2.4. Flow Cytometry Analysis
The cells were cultured in the presence of IFN-α and/or -DFUR for the indicated times. Then, the cells were then harvested and fixed with ice-cold 70% ethyl alcohol at 4°C overnight. After centrifugation at 2000 ×g for 5 min, the cell pellet was washed with PBS and incubated with RNase A (20 μg/mL) at 37°C for 30 min. Next the cells were incubated with PI (10 μg/mL) for 30 min in the dark. Finally, the samples were evaluated by flow cytometry, and the data were analyzed with CellQuest software (Becton Dickinson, San Jose, CA, USA).
2.5. Western Blot Analysis
The cells were solubilized in 1% Triton lysis buffer on ice. Lysates were collected after centrifuging at 12,000 rpm for 20 min at 4°C. Protein levels were quantified using Lowry method. Cell lysate proteins were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and electrophoretically transferred to nitrocellulose membrane (Immobilon-P, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA). The membranes were blocked with 5% skim milk in TBST buffer, incubated with the indicated antibodies, and reacted with horseradish-peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies. The proteins were detected with enhanced chemiluminescence reagent (SuperSignal Western Pico Chemiluminescent Substrate; Pierce, USA) and visualized with the Electrophoresis Gel Imaging Analysis System (DNR Bio-Imaging Systems, Israel).
2.6. Small Interfering RNA Transfections
TP small interfering RNA (siRNA) was obtained from Shanghai GeneChem Co. Ltd (China). TP siRNA was synthesized: -AUAGACUCCAGCUUAUCCA- (sence) and -UGGAUAAGCUGGAGUCUAU- (antisence). ERK small interfering RNA (siRNA) was obtained from Shanghai GenePharma Co. Ltd (China). ERK siRNA was synthesized: -GUGCUCUGCUUAUGAUAAU- (sence) and -AUUAUCAUAAGCAGAGCAC- (antisence). Lipofectamine 2000 was diluted dropwise into RPMI 1640 and incubated at room temperature for 5 min. Then TP or ERK siRNA was added to the diluted lipofectamine 2000 and incubated for another 20 min. After 48 h of transient transfection, the cells were analyzed by Western blot for TP or ERK siRNA effect.
2.7. Statistical Analysis
Data were confirmed in three independent experiments and were expressed as the mean ± standard deviation (SD). The significance of the difference between the groups was assessed by the Student’s two tailed -test. The statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software 18.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). * was considered statistical significance.
3.1. IFN-α Enhances 5′-DFUR-Induced Apoptosis in Gastric Cancer Cells
To investigate the effects of -DFUR on the growth of gastric cancer cells, SGC7901 and MGC803 cells were treated with various doses of -DFUR for 48 h. As shown in Figure 1(a), cell viability was inhibited by -DFUR in a dose-dependent manner. The IC50 of -DFUR was 273 ± 28 μg/mL in SGC7901 cells, while the IC50 dose was not attained in MGC803 cells. To elucidate the effect of IFN-α on -DFUR-induced inhibition of cell proliferation, SGC7901 and MGC803 cells were preincubated with IFN-α (1000 IU/mL) for 48 h, followed by treatment with -DFUR (250 μg/mL) for 48 h. Compared with treatment with -DFUR alone, preincubation with IFN-α significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of -DFUR in both SGC7901 and MGC803 cells (, Figure 1(b)). While treatment of cells with IFN-α alone had no significant effect on apoptosis (~5% apoptosis), preincubation with IFN-α significantly enhanced -DFUR-induced apoptosis in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells compared with -DFUR alone (29.89 ± 5.18% versus 16.40 ± 3.93%, 14.83 ± 4.86% versus 6.10 ± 2.26%, resp., , Figure 1(c)). We also observed an increase in cleaved caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP in cells treated with both IFN-α and -DFUR, further confirming the induction of apoptosis (Figure 1(d)). These results demonstrate that IFN-α increases -DFUR-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells.
3.2. IFN-α Upregulates TP Expression in Gastric Cancer Cells
To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms linking increased apoptosis to pretreatment with IFN-α, we examined the effect of IFN-α on the expression of TP in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. As shown in Figure 2(a), exposure of SGC7901 and MGC803 cells to IFN-α led to induction of TP expression after 24 h. While exposure to -DFUR alone did not significantly alter TP expression, the combined treatment with IFN-α and -DFUR led to an increase in TP levels, similar to that induced with IFN-α alone (Figure 2(b)). To investigate whether IFN-α-induced TP upregulation is responsible for the effect of IFN-α and -DFUR, we transiently transfected siRNA plasmids targeting TP into SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. Compared with siRNA controls, the depletion of TP with siRNA obviously inhibited IFN-α-induced upregulation of TP expression in MGC803 cells (Figure 2(c)). The similar results were also observed in SGC7901 cells (data not shown). As a single agent, TP siRNA had no significant effect on apoptosis. Compared with siRNA controls, the depletion of TP prevented apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells (27.68 ± 4.39% versus 15.96 ± 3.53%, 16.57 ± 3.65% versus 6.16 ± 2.48%, resp., , Figure 2(d)). These results indicate that IFN-α likely enhances -DFUR-induced apoptosis via upregulation of TP expression.
3.3. IFN-α Induces the Activation of ERK in Gastric Cancer Cells
Recent studies have shown that the ERK pathway is linked to the expression of TP in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells . Based on this, we examined the effect of IFN-α on the activation of ERK signaling in gastric cancer cells. As shown in Figure 3(a), treatment of SGC7901 and MGC803 cells with IFN-α led to an increase in phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK) in a time-dependent manner. In contrast, we did not observe obvious change in the levels of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) following IFN-α treatment. Treatment of cells with -DFUR alone did not significantly alter ERK activation; however, the combined treatment with IFN-α and -DFUR led to activation of ERK, similar to that observed with IFN-α alone (Figure 3(b)). These data indicate that ERK activation may be involved in apoptosis induced by combined IFN-α- and -DFUR treatment.
3.4. IFN-α Upregulates the Expression of TP Partially by Promoting ERK Activation in Gastric Cancer Cells
To investigate whether IFN-α-induced ERK activation is responsible for the upregulation of TP expression, SGC7901 and MGC803 cells were exposed to IFN-α and -DFUR in the presence or absence of ERK inhibitor PD98059. Preincubation with PD98059 for 1 h partially inhibited the induction of phosphorylated ERK mediated by treatment with IFN-α or IFN-α/-DFUR. Preincubation with PD98059 partially reversed the upregulation of TP induced by IFN-α and IFN-α-DFUR in MGC803 cells compared with nontreated controls (Figure 4(a)). The similar results were also observed in SGC7901 cells (data not shown). While treatment with PD98059 alone did not obviously influence apoptosis induced by IFN-α, PD98059 partially inhibited apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells (29.98 ± 4.76% versus 19.73 ± 3.08%, 15.85 ± 2.75% versus 9.08 ± 2.12%, resp., , Figure 4(b)). To further determine the involvement of ERK activation in upregulation of TP expression, we transiently transfected siRNA plasmids targeting ERK into SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. Compared with siRNA controls, the depletion of ERK with siRNA partially inhibited IFN-α-induced upregulation of TP expression in MGC803 cells (Figure 4(c)). The similar results were also observed in SGC7901 cells (data not shown). As a single agent, ERK siRNA had no significant effect on apoptosis. Compared with siRNA controls, the depletion of ERK partially prevented apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells (30.50 ± 4.34% versus 21.07 ± 3.62%, 16.73 ± 3.15% versus 11.49 ± 2.18%, resp., , Figure 4(d)).These results indicate that IFN-α upregulates TP expression in part by activating ERK signaling and thus enhances -DFUR-induced apoptosis.
-DFUR is a precursor of 5-FU and is converted to 5-FU by TP. In the present study, we demonstrate that -DFUR inhibits the proliferation of SGC7901 and MGC803 gastric cancer cells, at high concentrations. However, to enhance the sensitivity of gastric cancer cells to -DFUR treatment, it is also necessary to increase the levels of TP. A recent study showed that TP expression may be clinically useful in predicting and improving the outcome of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with -DFUR or capecitabine . In vitro experiments also suggested that nasopharyngeal carcinoma tumors with high TP expression were sensitive to -DFUR [17, 18]. IFN-α could improve the immune function of the body and has been used for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma, melanoma, and T-cell lymphoma. Continuous contact with PEG-IFN-α2b induces strong antitumor effects in human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo . Makower et al. reported that interferon induced TP expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from tumor patients . In addition, IFN enhances the cytotoxicity of -DFUR in bladder cancer cells . So, we analyzed the expression of TP in gastric cancer cells treated with IFN-α and -DFUR. In the present study, we found that preincubation with IFN-α significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of -DFUR in SGC7901 and MGC803 gastric cancer cells compared with treatment with -DFUR alone. Further experiments showed that IFN-α increased the expression of TP, and, similarly, combined treatment with IFN-α and -DFUR led to induction of TP. Moreover, the depletion of TP with siRNA inhibited IFN-α-induced upregulation of TP expression and thus prevented apoptosis induced by IFN-α and -DFUR. Thus, TP likely plays an important role in the enhancement of -DFUR-induced apoptosis by IFN-α in gastric cancer cells.
Previous studies have shown that TP may be regulated by different signaling pathways, including protein kinase Cdelta, JNK, and ERK [22, 23]. While ERK activation is predominantly associated with survival and proliferation, ERK signaling has also been shown to play a role in apoptosis in some systems. Recently, we showed that VP-16 or Ara-c induces apoptosis in rat basophilic leukemia cells by enhancing MEK/ERK activation . In addition, ERK is critical for apoptosis-associated mitochondrial events and apoptotic cell death induced by IFN-α in multiple myeloma cell lines . In the present study, we show that IFN-α alone or in combination with -DFUR upregulates ERK phosphorylation. Treatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 or ERK siRNA partially prevented IFN-α-induced phosphorylation of ERK and the upregulation of TP expression and thus partially inhibited IFN-α and -DFUR-induced apoptosis. Our results indicate that ERK activation is one of upstream pathways of IFN-α-induced TP upregulation. So, ERK activation acts as an intermediary signaling molecule in the induction of apoptosis by IFN-α and -DFUR.
Our data indicate that IFN-α is a potent sensitizer of -DFUR-induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. This effect is mediated by induction of TP expression partially via ERK activation. These results provide important insights into the mechanisms underlying the effects of IFN-α and -DFUR combination therapy in gastric cancer and may facilitate the design of new drug combinations.
Conflict of Interests
No potential conflict of interests is disclosed.
Yike Zhu and Ling Xu contributed equally to this paper.
This study was supported by the following grants: Chinese National Foundation of National Sciences Grants (no. 81172369, no. 81172198, and no. 81201802), the Key Laboratory Programme of Education Department of Liaoning Province (LS2010169), and National Science and Technology Major Project (nos. 2009ZX09102-124, 2010ZX09401-304-110G, and 2013ZX09303002).
- F. Kamangar, G. M. Dores, and W. F. Anderson, “Patterns of cancer incidence, mortality, and prevalence across five continents: defining priorities to reduce cancer disparities in different geographic regions of the world,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 24, no. 14, pp. 2137–2150, 2006.
- T. Liakakos and D. H. Roukos, “More controversy than ever—challenges and promises towards personalized treatment of gastric cancer,” Annals of Surgical Oncology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 956–960, 2008.
- A. F. C. Okines, A. R. Norman, P. McCloud, Y. K. Kang, and D. Cunningham, “Meta-analysis of the REAL-2 and ML17032 trials: evaluating capecitabine-based combination chemotherapy and infused 5-fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy for the treatment of advanced oesophago-gastric cancer,” Annals of Oncology, vol. 20, no. 9, pp. 1529–1534, 2009.
- E. Di Gennaro, G. Piro, M. I. Chianese et al., “Vorinostat synergises with capecitabine through upregulation of thymidine phosphorylase,” The British Journal of Cancer, vol. 103, no. 11, pp. 1680–1691, 2010.
- M. Ait-Tihyaty, Z. Rachid, C. Mihalcioiu, and B. J. Jean-Claude, “Inhibition of EGFR phosphorylation in a panel of human breast cancer cells correlates with synergistic interactions between gefitinib and 5′-DFUR, the bioactive metabolite of Xeloda,” Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, vol. 133, no. 1, pp. 217–226, 2012.
- H. Shindoh, K. Nakano, T. Yoshida, and M. Ishigai, “Comparison of in vitro metabolic conversion of capecitabine to 5-FU in rats, mice, monkeys and humans—toxicological implications,” Journal of Toxicological Sciences, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 411–422, 2011.
- L. Adalid-Peralta, V. Godot, C. Colin et al., “Stimulation of the primary anti-HIV antibody response by IFN-α in patients with acute HIV-1 infection,” Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 1060–1067, 2008.
- S. Négrier, G. Gravis, D. Pérol et al., “Temsirolimus and bevacizumab, or sunitinib, or interferon α and bevacizumab for patients with advanced renal cell carcinoma (TORAVA): a randomised phase 2 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 12, no. 7, pp. 673–680, 2011.
- J. Hansson, S. Aamdal, L. Bastholt et al., “Two different durations of adjuvant therapy with intermediate-dose interferon α-2b in patients with high-risk melanoma (Nordic IFN trial): a randomised phase 3 trial,” The Lancet Oncology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 144–152, 2011.
- B. Simonsson, T. Gedde-Dahl, B. Markevärn et al., “Combination of pegylated IFN-α2b with imatinib increases molecular response rates in patients with low- or intermediate-risk chronic myeloid leukemia,” Blood, vol. 118, no. 12, pp. 3228–3235, 2011.
- A. Hodson, S. Crichton, S. Montoto et al., “Use of zidovudine and interferon α with chemotherapy improves survival in both acute and lymphoma subtypes of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma,” Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 29, no. 35, pp. 4696–4701, 2011.
- K. H. Link, M. Kornmann, L. Staib, M. Redenbacher, M. Kron, and H. G. Beger, “Increase of survival benefit in advanced resectable colon cancer by extent of adjuvant treatment: results of a randomized trial comparing modulation of 5-FU + levamisole with folinic acid or with interferon-α,” Annals of Surgery, vol. 242, no. 2, pp. 178–187, 2005.
- Y. S. Xiao, Z. Y. Tang, J. Fan et al., “Interferon-α 2a up-regulated thymidine phosphorylase and enhanced antitumor effect of capecitabine on hepatocellular carcinoma in nude mice,” Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology, vol. 130, no. 9, pp. 546–550, 2004.
- S. Ikemoto, K. Sugimura, N. Yoshida, K. Kuratsukuri, S. Wada, and T. Nakatani, “Comparative antitumor activity of 5-fluorouracil and 5′-deoxy-5- fluorouridine in combination with interferon-α in renal cell carcinoma cell lines,” Urologia Internationalis, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 348–353, 2004.
- L. C. Chen, H. P. Liu, H. P. Li et al., “Thymidine phosphorylase mRNA stability and protein levels are increased through ERK-mediated cytoplasmic accumulation of hnRNP K in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells,” Oncogene, vol. 28, no. 17, pp. 1904–1915, 2009.
- K. Saito, K. Khan, S. Z. Yu et al., “The predictive and therapeutic value of thymidine phosphorylase and dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase in capecitabine (Xeloda)-based chemotherapy for head and neck cancer,” Laryngoscope, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 82–88, 2009.
- K. Tsuneyoshi, M. Haraguchi, Z. Hongye et al., “Induction of thymidine phosphorylase expression by AZT contributes to enhancement of 5′-DFUR cytotoxicity,” Cancer Letters, vol. 244, no. 2, pp. 239–246, 2006.
- L. C. Chen, C. Hsueh, N. M. Tsang et al., “Heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein K and thymidine phosphorylase are independent prognostic and therapeutic markers for nasopharyngeal carcinoma,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 14, no. 12, pp. 3807–3813, 2008.
- H. Yano, S. Ogasawara, S. Momosaki et al., “Growth inhibitory effects of pegylated IFN α-2b on human liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo,” Liver International, vol. 26, no. 8, pp. 964–975, 2006.
- D. Makower, S. Wadler, H. Haynes, and E. L. Schwartz, “Interferon induces thymidine phosphorylase/platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor expression in vivo,” Clinical Cancer Research, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 923–929, 1997.
- G. Li, S. Kawakami, Y. Kageyama, C. Yan, K. Saito, and K. Kihara, “IFNγ-induced up-regulation of PD-ECGF/TP enhances the cytotoxicity of 5-fluorouracil and 5′-deoxy-5-fluorouridine in bladder cancer cells,” Anticancer Research, vol. 22, no. 5, pp. 2607–2612, 2002.
- K. W. Zhao, D. Li, Q. Zhao et al., “Interferon-α-induced expression of phospholipid scramblase 1 through STAT1 requires the sequential activation of protein kinase Cδ and JNK,” The Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol. 280, no. 52, pp. 42707–42714, 2005.
- J. C. Ko, M. S. Tsai, Y. F. Chiu, S. H. Weng, Y. H. Kuo, and Y. W. Lin, “Up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent thymidylate synthase and thymidine phosphorylase contributes to cisplatin resistance in human non-small-cell lung cancer cells,” Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, vol. 338, no. 1, pp. 184–194, 2011.
- X. Qu, Y. Li, J. Liu et al., “Cbl-b promotes chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in rat basophilic leukemia cells by suppressing PI3K/Akt activation and enhancing MEK/ERK activation,” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 340, no. 1-2, pp. 107–114, 2010.
- T. Panaretakis, L. Hjortsberg, K. P. Tamm, A. C. Björklund, B. Joseph, and D. Grandér, “Interferon α induces nucleus-independent apoptosis by activating extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mammalian target of rapamycin,” Molecular Biology of the Cell, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 41–50, 2008.