About this Journal Submit a Manuscript Table of Contents
BioMed Research International
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 732078, 19 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/732078
Review Article

Detection Progress of Selected Drugs in TLC

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Silesia, 4 Jagiellońska Street, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland

Received 28 April 2013; Revised 9 October 2013; Accepted 11 October 2013; Published 16 January 2014

Academic Editor: Hidetoshi Arima

Copyright © 2014 Alina Pyka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This entry describes applications of known indicators and dyes as new visualizing reagents and various visualizing systems as well as photocatalytic reactions and bioautography method for the detection of bioactive compounds including drugs and compounds isolated from herbal extracts. Broadening index, detection index, characteristics of densitometric band, modified contrast index, limit of detection, densitometric visualizing index, and linearity range of detected compounds were used for the evaluation of visualizing effects of applied visualizing reagents. It was shown that visualizing effect depends on the chemical structure of the visualizing reagent, the structure of the substance detected, and the chromatographic adsorbent applied. The usefulness of densitometry to direct detection of some drugs was also shown. Quoted papers indicate the detection progress of selected drugs investigated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC).

1. Introduction

Among the different chromatographic techniques, one of the most popular in biological and pharmaceutical analysis of bioactive substances and recommended by USP (United State Pharmacopia) is HPLC with respective detection system, for example, HPLC-UV. It is well known that the choice of the analytical method (including chromatographic methods) depends on the chemical and physicochemical properties of the compound being separated and also on the available apparatus and sensitivity needed for the analysis. Moreover, the total time of chromatographic analysis and its low cost are also important. In many papers concerning thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analysis of various drugs, TLC is an important method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of drugs because it indicates some advantages in comparison to HPLC and GC methods, which are listed below:(i)TLC can be used in those situations when HPLC-UV and GC are not suitable, for example, absence of UV activity of examined compound (important for HPLC analysis) or when the absence of volatility (important for GC analysis) is observed;(ii)in comparison to HPLC in the case of TLC the high purity and high concentration of examined samples are not required. Unlike HPLC there is no danger that the samples impurities influence column damage and its separation property;(iii)TLC needs no expensive equipment and is easy to work in comparison to HPLC and GC;(iv)TLC allows a parallel separation and quantitative determination of many samples at the same time;(v)it is possible to put on TLC plates a large volume of sample because the solvent excess removing during the sample is spotted on chromatographic plates.

For these purposes TLC greatly contributes to the analysis of different groups of drugs. The last decade shows that interest in TLC application in pharmaceutical analysis (e.g., control purity of drugs) has increased with improvements in TLC instrumentation such as TLC combined with densitometry or with MS and IR, respectively. If the standard compounds of drug are not available, identification of unknown drug components has to be done. Moreover, TLC combined with densitometer or MS and also detector enables the determination of drug components in a low range: pmol or fmol. For this reason TLC is used as one of the promising methods of separation and quantitative determination for these types of compounds for which GC or HPLC is not suitable. The above-mentioned arguments explain enough why the TLC-densitometry is proposed in many drug analyses as an alternative method to the pharmacopoeias methods.

Important step of thin-layer analysis of compounds is the detection of investigated substances including drugs. The separated substances by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) can be detected by the following methods: physical (individual colour of substance or fluorescence of substance in UV light); chemical (coloured reactions of separated substances with visualizing reagents); physicochemical (e.g., the application of isotopes as visualizing reagent); biological (the application of biodetectors) [110]. Many drugs are active in the range of UV light and can be directly detected and determined on chromatographic plate, for example, by densitometric analysis, in short or long wavelength UV light [1139]. The visualizing reagents have the special significance to detect separated compounds on thin layers. In view of the detection mechanism of the compound, the visualizing reagents can be sorted as follows: conservative reagents, which do not destroy separated substances destructive reagents, which destroy or change the structure of separated substances. Currently, the most important field of application of thin-layer chromatography is pharmacy. The number of publications in the field of pharmacy steadily increases. It results from the fact that contemporary thin-layer chromatography is a fully instrumentalized and automated technique [13, 29].

The applications of many reagents for the detection of organic compounds, including drugs, after their separation on thin-layer were presented in books [1, 2] on the basis of manuscripts published up to 1992. The objectives of this review are the presentation and discussion of the significance of known indicators and dyes as new visualizing reagents and various visualizing systems as well as photocatalytic reactions and bioautography method for detection of bioactive compounds including drugs and compounds isolated from herbal extracts in TLC investigations that were described in the selected manuscripts from 1993.

2. Parameters Describing the Visualizing Effects

The estimation of visualizing effects of the detected compounds must be objective. Therefore, Gregorowicz and Sliwiok [39, 40] introduced the indexes for estimation of rhodamine B, new fuchsine, basic fuchsine, and crystal violet for detection of cholesterol and higher fatty acids. To compare the developing effects of the above-mentioned dyes, it was suggested [39, 40] to estimate the chromatographic spots obtained by means of indexes given bellow:(i)detection index which indicates the ratio of the minimal number of micrograms of the substance detected to the area of the chromatographic spot in square millimeters obtained by the planimetric method: where is the smallest quantity of substances detected [μg] with the visualizing reagent (limit of detection) and is the spot area of the substance [mm2] at the limit of detection of the substance;(ii)developing index which gives the numerical value of the part of the chromatographic spot area relating to 1 μg;(iii)contrast index which represents two independent values, namely, the angle between tangents drawn to the arms of the densitometric band, formulated in the degrees, and the densitometric band height in centimeters;(iv)durability of the spot in order to formulate the durability of chromatographic spot colors. The following relative scale was proposed: spot of minor durability, visible up to 2 hours; spot of mean durability, visible from 2 to 6 hours; and durable spot durability, visible for over 6 hours.

Today the area of chromatographic spot is determined by densitometric analysis. Therefore, Pyka et al. modified the above-mentioned indexes and also proposed new indexes which characterized the visualizing effects [4145]. The limit of detection (detectability), detection index, broadening index, modified contrast index, densitometric visualizing index, and linearity range were determined and tested for estradiol, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, ibuprofen, stearic acid, stearyl alcohol, and salicylanilide detected by the use of visualizing reagents. The broadening index [41, 42] was defined as where is the mass [μg] of the detected substance and is the spot area [AU] of   μg of this analyzed substance.

The detection index was defined as where is the smallest quantity of substance detected [μg] (limit of detection) and is the spot area of substance [AU] at the limit of detection of substance.

The modified contrast index [43] was defined as where is the height of the densitometric band [AU] of   μg of analyzed substance and is the angle [] between the tangents at the inflection points to the curves of the densitometric band of substance.

The densitometric visualizing index (DVI) [44] was proposed and defined as where is the limit of detection of the analyzed substance [μg], is the spot area [AU] of   μg of analyzed substance, and is the angle [] between the tangents at the inflection points to the curves of the densitometric band of   μg of analyzed substance.

2.1. Application of New Parameters Characterizing the Visualizing Effects

New visualizing reagents, namely, gentian violet, methylene violet, methylene blue, methyl green, malachite green, and Janus blue, have been used to detect estradiol, tocopherol, tocopherol acetate, ibuprofen, stearic acid, and stearyl alcohol [4143, 45]. Brilliant green was applied to detect salicylanilide [44]. Estradiol was chromatographed on neutral aluminum oxide 60F254 and neutral aluminum oxide 150F254 using a mixture of toluene and ethyl acetate (1 : 1, v/v) as mobile phase. Barton’s reagent, rhodamine B, and sulphuric acid were administered as the comparative visualizing reagents [43]. (±)--Tocopherol and (+)--tocopherol acetate were chromatographed on silica gel 60 using toluene as mobile phase [41]. Rhodamine B and 2,2′-bipyridine-iron (III) chloride reagent were applied as the comparative visualizing reagents. Ibuprofen was chromatographed on silica gel 60F254 using a mixture of chloroform and methanol (50 : 1.4, v/v) as a mobile phase. Rhodamine B was used as the comparative visualizing reagent [42]. Stearic acid and stearyl alcohol were chromatographed on silica gel 60 using a mixture of n-hexane-ethyl acetate (46 : 4, v/v) as mobile phase. Rhodamine B was used as the comparative visualizing reagent [45]. Fundamental absorption band of studied drugs, color of spot of detected drugs, background color of chromatogram, limit of detection, and linearity range are presented in Table 1. Characteristics of densitometric band of detected drugs, modified contrast index, densitometric visualizing index, modified broadening index, and detection index are presented in Table 2. It was stated that the proposed modified contrast index is the objective parameter describing the applied visualizing reagents. Influence of solid support on the obtained visualizing effects was found. The angles () between the tangents at the inflection points to the curves of the densitometric peaks were more compact on neutral aluminum oxide 60F254 than on neutral aluminum oxide 150F254. This observation indicates that the utility of any particular visualizing reagent depends on the type of chromatographic support applied. For quantitative research of estradiol investigated, relatively good properties had sulphuric acid (VI), Barton’s reagent, gentian violet, and methylene violet [43]. 2,2′-Bipyridine-iron (III) chloride reagent can be used only to detect (±)--tocopherol. Among all studied new visualizing reagents, methylene violet and methyl green were the best to detect (±)--tocopherol. The best detection way of (+)--tocopherol acetate was densitometric method without using a visualizing reagent, whereas among all studied new visualizing reagents, gentian violet, methyl green, and Janus blue were the best to detect (+)--tocopherol acetate. These visualizing reagents have similar detection properties of (+)--tocopherol acetate in relation to rhodamine B [41]. The best detection way of ibuprofen was densitometric method without using a visualizing reagent. Among all studied new visualizing reagents, methylene violet was the best to detect ibuprofen [42]. New visualizing reagents for detection of stearic acid and stearyl alcohol were better visualizing reagents in comparison with the universally applied rodamine B to detect the lipophilic compounds. The best visualizing reagents to quantitative determination of stearic acid were methylene blue and Janus blue. The best visualizing reagents to quantitative determination of stearyl alcohol were malachite green and Janus blue [45].

tab1
Table 1: Fundamental absorption band of drugs, color of spot of detected drugs, background color of chromatogram, limit of detection, and linearity range.
tab2
Table 2: Characteristics of densitometric band of detected drugs, modified contrast index, densitometric visualizing index, modified broadening index, and detection index.

3. Visualizing Effects for Different Substances including Drugs

3.1. Detection by the Use of Visualizing Reagents and Various Visualizing Systems
3.1.1. Detection of Steroids Compounds including Drugs

Huetos et al. [46] investigated the specificity of chromatographic conditions of 35 anabolic steroids and 10 other veterinary drugs. The best sensitivity of the different corticosteroids was performed with silica gel plates eluted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in volume composition 92 : 8. Four spray reagents were compared for selectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. The best results were obtained using reagents 1 and 2. Reagent 1 was a 1 : 1 mixture of a solution of 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (25 mg) in glacial acetic acid (50 mL) and a mixture of sulfuric acid (12.5 mL) and glacial acetic acid (37.5 mL). Reagent 2 was a 1 : 1 mixture of a solution of tetrazolium blue (0.25 mg) in methanol (50 mL) and a solution of sodium hydroxide (10 mg) in water (50 mL) [46]. The plates after spraying were heated at 85–90°C for 10 min. Table 3 shows values, color of spots, and detection limits for the selected seven most common corticosteroids after reaction with reagents 1 and 2. Reagent 2 can be administered for sensitive screening for the presence of corticosteroids in illegal cocktails. Reagent 1 is more suitable. Reagent 1 gives more information about the corticosteroids, owing to the development of different colors, with reasonable sensitivity [46].

tab3
Table 3: Detection results of selected corticosteroids [46].

Stigmasterol and β-sitosterol (10 μg and 5 μg) were visualized after separation on silica gel using a mixture of toluene and ethyl acetate (7 : 3, v/v) [47]. The results obtained for the stigmasterol and β-sitosterol by use of the individual visualizing reagents (gentian violet, methylene violet, methyl green, malachite green, and Janus blue) depend on the method of application—spraying or dipping. Rhodamine B was used as comparative visualizing reagent. The best results of detection of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were obtained by spraying the visualizing reagents (Tables 4 and 5) [47].

tab4
Table 4: Characteristics of densitometric bands of stigmasterol after dipping and spraying with the use of particular visualizing reagents [47].
tab5
Table 5: Characteristics of densitometric bands of β-sitosterol after dipping and spraying with the use of particular visualizing reagents [47].

The alkacymetric indicators, namely, thymol blue, bromophenol blue, and bromothymol blue, were also used in the detection of different classes, including the compounds of biological significance, namely, sterols (cholesterol, stigmasterol) on silica gel 60F254 after separation using the n-hexane + acetone (8 : 2, v/v) mobile phase. The colors of spots were durable and sufficient contrast between spots and background was observed. The detection limits with these visualizing reagents were from 0.5 μg to 2.0 μg for sterols [48]. Alkaline blue, aniline blue, brilliant green, bromothymol blue, thymol blue, phenol red, helasol green, bromocresol green, brilliant cresyl blue, bromophenol blue, and neutral red were applied for visualizing cholesterol and its derivatives in adsorption thin-layer chromatography (on silica gel and aluminum oxide) and in argentation thin-layer chromatography (on silica gel impregnated with an aqueous solution of silver nitrate (5%)) [49]. Visualizing effects of detection of cholesterol derivative depend on several factors, including the chemical structure of the visualizing reagents, the structure of the detected substance, and the type of chromatographic sorbent. Cholesteryl acetate was revealed with all visualizing reagents after separation on silica gel. Cholesteryl acetanilide, cholesteryl acetate, and cholesteryl arachidonate could be determined on silica gel by use of all the reagents except bromocresol green. On neutral aluminum oxide 0.3 μg cholesterol could be revealed with bromophenol blue, neutral red, and aniline blue; 0.3 μg cholesteryl acetanilide could be visualized with bromophenol blue and alkaline blue; 0.3 μg cholesteryl acetate could be detected with bromophenol blue, neutral red, helasol red, helasol green, and alkaline blue; 0.1 μg cholesteryl arachidonate could be visualized with bromophenol blue. The worst results were obtained after argentation TLC; the compounds studied could be detected only by the use of phenol red, helasol green, bromophenol blue, neutral red, aniline blue, and alkaline blue. The best and most universal visualizing reagents for cholesterol and the derivatives investigated in adsorption and argentation TLC were aniline blue, bromophenol blue, helasol green, and alkaline blue [49].

Wardas and Jędrzejczak [50] separated the selected free and conjugated bile acids by NP-TLC. Eleven visualizing agents were applied for detection of these investigated bile acids. The best results of detection of bile acids were obtained with bromocresol blue [50]. Bile acids can be also visualized by dipping plates into phosphomolybdic acid in ethanol and then heating for 10 min at 105–120°C [1] or by spraying the plates with a 10% solution of phosphomolybdic acid in methanol and then heating for 20 min at 50–80°C [51]. Chromatographic bands of bile acids on the densitogram after the use of spray solution of phosphomolybdic acid in methanol were irregular [51]. Therefore, this way of the detection of bile acids cannot be recommended. Regular chromatographic bands of bile acids on the densitogram were obtained after the use of dipping water solution of sulphuric acid [52].

3.1.2. Detection of Antiepileptic, Anticonvulsant, and Psychotropic Drugs

Phenytoin was detected by 1% aqueous mercuric nitrate reagent [1], 2% ethanolic mercuric chloride followed by 0.2% ethanolic diphenylcarbazone [1, 53], and 0.01% carbazone followed by 1% ferrous sulfate [1]. However, these reagents with phenytoin give a similar reaction to the barbiturates. Kulkarni et al. [54] reported a selective and sensitive chromogenic reagent, namely, 0.1% bromine in carbon tetrachloride followed by 0.1% o-tolidine in 0.5% acetic acid, for detection and determination of phenytoin in biological samples investigated by TLC. Phenytoin with this reagent gives blue spot on a white background of chromatogram. Color of blue spot is stable for an hour. This reagent does not give any color reaction with barbiturates. However, this reagent gives a similar color reaction with the benzodiazepines. Sensitivity for phenytoin, alprazolam, diazepam, lorazepam, nitrazepam, and oxazepam is equal to 5 μg, 20 μg, 30 μg, 5 μg, 30 μg, and 5 μg, respectively [54]. A single and sensitive chromogenic chlorination with the use of o-tolidine was used for detection of diazepam, phenobarbitone, and saccharin [55]. Diazepam, phenobarbitone, and saccharin solution were spotted on silica gel G plates and developed by the use of one from three mobile phases, namely, n-hexane-acetone-methanol (8 : 3 : 0.5, v/v/v), n-hexane-acetone-butanol (12 : 8 : 0.5, v/v/v), and chloroform-acetic acid (9 : 1, v/v). After development plates were dried in air and were placed for ca 5 min in a chamber containing chloride gas, excess chlorine was removed from the plates and the next plates were sprayed with o-tolidine reagent (50 mg o-tolidine in 100 mL 10% acetic acid). When a faint blue color appeared the plates were next sprayed with 1% phosphomolybdic acid for stabilization. The limits of detection for diazepam, phenobarbitone, and saccharin with o-tolidine reagent were 0.5 μg per spot, 0.3 μg per spot, and 0.1 μg per spot, respectively [55]. Cyclodol and diprazin were separated on silica gel by the use of one from six mobile phases: toluene-acetone-ethanol-25% NH4OH (45 : 45 : 7.5 : 2.5, v/v/v/v), hexane-ethyl acetate (15 : 5, v/v), chloroform-heptene-25% NH4OH (16 : 3 : 3, v/v/v), ethyl acetate-hexane (1 : 1, v/v), acetonitrile-methanol (1 : 1, v/v) or heptene-chloroform-ethanol-25% NH4OH (5 : 10 : 3 : 1, v/v/v/v). Iodine vapours, UV light at 254 nm, and fresh normal plasma (FNP) can be applied as visualizing reagents for cyclodol and diprazin. FNP gives colored spot with diprazin [56].

3.1.3. Detection of Antibiotics

Quintens et al. [57] described the procedure which enables the identification of thirty cephalosporins by TLC on silanized silica gel F254. The obtained results with seven mobile phases were reported. Results of some reactions with all cephalosporins were also presented. The following reagents were applied: (1) sulfuric acid; (2) sulfuric acid-formaldehyde (1 mL of a 37% m/m solution of formaldehyde mixed with 50 mL of concentrated sulfuric acid); (3) sulfuric acid-nitric acid (1 mL of concentrated nitric acid mixed with 99 mL of an 80% v/v solution of sulfuric acid) [57]. The reagents (1) and (2) were used by mixing the cephalosporin (2 mg) with 0.05 mL water and adding the reagent (2 mL). The reagent (3) was administered by mixing the cephalosporin (2 mg) directly with 0.25 mL of reagent (3). The details of results obtained with the color reactions were presented in Quintens paper [57]. The sulfuric acid-formaldehyde reagent (2) gives the most discriminatory colors. TLC on silanized silica gel combined with simple color reactions enables identification of all investigated cephalosporins [57].

Bacitracin is a mixture of related cyclic polypeptides produced by Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis organisms and is used in human medicine as a polypeptide antibiotic. Bacitracin with dabsyl chloride gives a complex and can be detected by densitometric measurements at 460 nm [58].

3.1.4. Detection of Essential Oil Compounds

Pyka et al. [59] applied eighteen new visualizing reagents for the visualization of nineteen standard essential oil components (hydrocarbons, aliphatic and monocyclic alcohols, phenols, ethers, ketones, and aldehydes) after chromatography on silica gel and benzene as mobile phase. The visualizing effects obtained were compared with detection of these compounds by using iodine vapor and 5% solution potassium dichromate in 40% sulfuric acid. These investigations possess quality character for the detection substances which occur in various essential oils. Quality identification was based on the ground of the values of investigated compounds and on the color of detected compounds in TLC. The substances belonging to the same class of compounds investigated by means of adsorption thin-layer chromatography may have slight differences in values. For example, hydrocarbons investigated by Pyka et al. [59], camphene, (R)-(+) limonene, and p-cymene; alcohols: farnesol, menthol, and borneol; phenols: eugenol and guaiacol; ethers: coumarin, cineole, and carvone; and cinnamic aldehyde, as well as camphor and (1R)-(−) fenchone, with regard to their incomplete separation by means of these techniques (small differences in values), can be identified by means of diversified colours of spots on chromatogram. These results can be used in the practice for qualitative investigation of essential oils of plants. For example, thymol, linalool, and borneol are presented in thyme herb Herba Thymi. The difference in values between thymol and linalool was notable and was equal to while between linalool and borneol was small and was equal to . That is why the confirmation of appearance particularly linalool and borneol in mixture can be by diversified colours of their chromatographic spots with visualizing reagents: 0.1% aqueous HCl + 1% aqueous Ni(NO3)2, 0.1% aqueous HCl + 2% aqueous CuSO4, and 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + 2% aqueous CuSO4. Furthermore, linalool and geraniol are the main components of coriander fruit (Fructus Coriandri). The difference in values between these compounds was equal to 0.085. The different colours of chromatographic spots of linalool and geraniol were obtained with visualizing reagents 0.1% aqueous HCl + 1% aqueous Ni(NO3)2, 0.1% aqueous HCl + 2% aqueous CuSO4, 0.1% aqueous HCl + 2% aqueous CuSO4 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous HCl + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, and 5% solution of K2Cr2O7 in 40% H2SO4. Fennel oil (Fructus Foeniculi) contains, among others, trans-anethole, fenchone, and limonene. Limonene was visualized only by means of visualizing reagent 0.1% aqueous HCl + 2% aqueous CuSO4 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, whilst this agent does not give the reaction with fenchone and trans-anethole. Only the visualizing reagent 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 gives different colour of chromatographic spots with fenchone and trans-anethole. Anise oil (Oleum Anisi) contains, among others, trans-anethole, fenchone, and p-cymene. p-Cymene and trans-anethole give chromatographic bands with various colours with visualizing reagent: 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + 1% aqueous Ni(NO3)2 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, whilst fenchone could not be detected by means of this reagent. To detect fenchone it is necessary to make a second chromatographic analysis and to apply, for example, visualizing reagent: saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride for fenchone detection. This reagent does not detect trans-anethole but with p-cymene gives band with orange-yellow colour whilst the spot has light grey colour with fenchone. The results can be also applied for quick estimation of purity of some compounds obtained synthetically. The natural vanillin is present in vanilla fruits (Vanilla planifolia) but synthetically can be obtained from eugenol. Vanillin and eugenol can be analysed qualitatively on chromatogram and the presence of eugenol can also be checked in the product. The diversified colours of spots of these compounds with visualizing reagents: 0.1% aqueous HCl + 1% aqueous Ni(NO3)2 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous HCl + 2% aqueous CuSO4 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous HCl + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + 2% aqueous CuSO4 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, 0.1% aqueous Na2CO3 + 1% aqueous Ni(NO3)2 + saturated aqueous solution of variamine blue hydrochloride, and 5% solution of K2Cr2O7 in 40% H2SO4, can be useful for interpretation of the results obtained [59].

3.1.5. Detection of Quinones

Quinones are a class of aromatic yellow compounds that are biologically important as coenzymes or acceptors or vitamins. Kocjan [60] investigated eleven new visualizing reagents for the detection of five quinones. Quinones were separated on silica gel 60 using a mixture of dichloromethane-n-hexane (8 : 2, v/v) as mobile phase. Variamine blue hydrochloride, hydrochloric acid, dithizone, 8-hydroxyquinoline, and different salts [Ni(NO3)2, Na2CO3, Co(NO3)2] were used to prepare the solutions of visualizing reagents. The values and different colors of spots obtained for quinones enabled unequivocal identification of all quinones. The detection limit of detected quinones was from 0.1 μg to 5 μg [60].

3.1.6. Detection of Phenolic Drugs and Flavonoids

Wardas et al. [61] examined alkacymetric indicators for detection of adrenaline, dopamine, phenylephrine, metaraminol, fenoterol, and bithionol after TLC separation on silica gel, polyamide 11F254, and a mixture of silica gel and kieselguhr by using glacial acetic acid-n-butanol-water (1 + 4 + 1, v/v) as mobile phase. They investigated the following indicators as visualizing reagents: phenol red, thymol blue, bromothymol blue, bromophenol blue, cresol green, erythrosine B, eriochrome black T, brilliant cresyl blue, eosin yellow, titan yellow, and helasol green dissolved in 5% NaOH, as well as bromocresol green, aniline blue, alkaline blue, brilliant cresyl blue, and brilliant green dissolved in water. Additionally, dimethyl yellow and thymolphthalein dissolved in methanol were applied, but before used, the chromatographic plate was sprayed with 5% NaOH. In each case the concentration of the solutions was 0.5 mg/mL. The visualizing effects were characterized by the detectability index, which was defined by Gregorowicz and Sliwiok [39, 40] using (1). Characteristics of the visualizing effect for adrenaline, dopamine, phenylephrine, metaraminol, fenoterol, and bithionol with the best visualizing reagents investigated on Kieselgel 60F254, Kieselgel 60/kieselguhr F254, and Polyamide 11F254 are listed in Table 6. However, phenylephrine and bithionol were not detected on polyamide 11F254 with none of the studied visualizing reagents [61]. Pyka et al. [62] detected silica gel 60 (E. Merck, #1.05721) following phenolic drugs bamethane, ethamivan, hexachlorophene, salicylanilide, pyrocatechine, thymol, pentazocine, phloroglucinol, eugenol, niclosamide, terbutaline, methyldopa, and norepinephrine. Plates with methyldopa, norepinephrine, terbutaline, bamethane, and ethamivan were developed with a mixture of glacial acetic acid-n-butanol-water (1 : 4 : 1, v/v) as mobile phase. Plates with phloroglucinol, pentazocine, hexachlorophene, pyrocatechine, niclosamide, salicylanilide, and thymol were developed with a mixture of chloroform-methanol (9 : 1, v/v). The plate with eugenol was developed with benzene as mobile phase. Thirteen visualizing reagents were used to detect the above-mentioned phenolic drugs. Alkaline blue, aniline blue, neutral red, and brilliant green were used as 50 mg/100 mL solutions in water. Bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, brilliant cresyl blue, thymol blue, phenol red, bromocresol green, and helasol green were applied as 50 mg/100 mL solutions in 2% aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. Bromophenol blue solution was prepared directly before use. Plates were evaluated after spraying and heated at 100°C for 15 min. By the means of the following visualizing reagents: alkaline blue, aniline blue, bromophenol blue, bromothymol blue, alkaline solution of brilliant cresyl blue, bromocresol green, helasol green, and aqueous solution of brilliant cresyl blue, it is possible to detect all of the drugs investigated in the amount of 100 μg. The results with the best visualizing reagents are also presented in Table 6.

tab6
Table 6: Characteristics of the visualizing effect for selected phenolic compounds.

Smolarz et al. [63] visualized phenolic acid in the petioles of Rheum undulatum and Rheum rhaponticum. Separation and identification of phenolic acids were performed on cellulose plates and by using the mobile phases: benzene-methanol-acetic acid-acetonitrile (80 : 10 : 5 : 5, v/v/v/v) in the first direction and sodium formate-formic acid-water (10 : 1 : 200, w/v/v) in the second direction. After drying the chromatograms were sprayed with diazotized sulfanilic acid in 20% sodium carbonate solution or with 2% aqueous ferric chloride. The limits of detection for gallic, protocatechuic, caffeic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, and ferulic acids were equal to 13 ng, 10 ng, 12 ng, 16 ng, 60 ng, 60 ng, 11 ng, 10 ng, and 64 ng, respectively [63].

Phenolic acids and flavonoids were also detected in some Croatian Stachys Taxa. Analysis was performed on silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates using ethyl acetate-acetic acid-formic acid-water (100 : 11 : 11 : 26, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. After drying the plates were sprayed with the natural products reagent polyethylene glycol. After spraying, chromatograms were observed at 254 nm and 366 nm. Fluorescence colors of phenolic acid and flavonoid standards were intense light blue (for caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid), dark orange (for hyperoside, isoquercitrin, luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, rutin, quercetin, and quercitrin), and light orange for vitexin [64]. Selected flavonoids (rutin, narcissin, nicotiflorin, and isoquercitrin) were isolated and identified in the extract from Caragana spinosa [65]. TLC was performed on silica gel plates using ethyl acetate-1,2-dichloroethane-acetic acid-85% formic acid-water (10 : 2.5 : 1 : 1 : 0.8, v/v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. First, the being development distance was 6 cm. Next, plates were dried and developed using the same conditions. After dried the investigated flavonoids were detected using visualizing reagent (0.5% 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate solution in ethyl acetate/5% polyethylene glycol solution in 1,2-dichloroethane) [65, 66]. The detection limits were 44.00, 44.21, 27.28, and 21.29 ng for rutin, narcissin, nicotiflorin, and isoquercitrin, respectively.

Głowniak et al. [67] analyzed phenolic compounds in the flowers of Lavatera trimestris L. (Malvaceae). Analysis was performed on silica gel 60 using different mobile phases. Caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids in UV light give blue, light blue, blue, violet, blue, blue, and violet spots, respectively. Caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, and gallic acids in UV light after treatment with ammonia vapor give blue, blue, blue, violet, yellow, yellow-green, and violet spots, respectively. Caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, isovanillic, gallic, syringic, vanillic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids after spraying with diazotized sulfanilic acid in 20% sodium carbonate solution give brown, red, violet, brown, gray, light brow, orange, light brown, dark red, orange, and yellow spots, respectively. Caffeic, p-coumaric, ferulic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, gallic, syringic, vanillic, and p-hydroxybenzoic acids after spraying with diazotized p-nitroaniline give brown, brown-blue, blue, red-brown, gray-green, lemon, green-red, blue, violet, and red spots, respectively. Caffeic, ferulic, protocatechuic, gentisic, chlorogenic, isovanillic, gallic, and vanillic acids after spraying with a 2% aqueous solution of ferric chloride give brown-green red, light-orange, brown-blue, navy blue, gray-green, gray, and brown spots, respectively [67].

Bhujbal and Sandhya [68] investigated the extracts from two commercial formulations of Vidangarista. Analysis was performed on silica gel 60F254 plates. The presence of gallic acid and conessine in extracts was observed using ethyl acetate-toluene-methanol-formic acid (3 : 3 : 0.3 : 0.8, v/v/v/v) and toluene-ethyl acetate-diethyl amine (6.5 : 2.5 : 1.0, v/v/v) as mobile phases, respectively. After development, gallic acid and conessine on chromatographic plate were visualized using Dragendorff’s reagent. Densitometric analysis was performed at 280 nm for gallic acid and at 520 nm for conessine.

3.1.7. Detection of Fatty Acids, Fatty Alcohols, Amide of Fatty Acids, and Esters of Fatty Acids

The fatty acids, fatty alcohols, and esters of higher fatty acids have great biochemical, medical, and pharmaceutical significance. The alkacymetric indicators, namely, thymol blue, bromophenol blue, and bromothymol blue, were also used for the detection of different classes, including the compounds with biological significance, namely, acids (myristic acid, palmitic acid, and stearic acid), glycerides (glycerol trioleate, glycerol tripalmitate), alcohols (oleyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol), and amides (stearamide, palmitamide) on silica gel 60F254 after separation using the n-hexane + acetone (8 : 2, v/v) as mobile phase. The colors of spots were durable and sufficient contrast between spots and background was observed. The detection limits with these visualizing reagents were from 0.5 μg to 1.0 μg for acids, from 1.0 μg to 2.0 μg for glycerides, from 1.0 μg to 2.0 μg for alcohols, and 1.0 μg for amides [48]. Aniline blue, alkaline blue bromothymol blue thymol blue, bromophenol blue, phenol red, helasol green, bromocresol green, and brilliant cresyl blue were also applied to the detection of unsaturated fatty acids (cis-6-octadecenoic, cis-9-octadecenoic, cis-11-octadecenoic, cis-12-octadecenoic, cis-13-octadecenoic, trans-9-octadecenoic, trans-11-octadecenoic, cis-6,9,12-octadecatrienoic, and cis-9,12,15-octadecatrienoic) chromatographed on silica gel 60F254 and on mixture of silica gel and kieselguhr F254 [69]. The best detectability (2 μg or 3 μg) of unsaturated fatty acids was obtained with aniline blue, alkaline blue bromothymol blue thymol blue, and bromophenol blue [69]. Niestrój et al. [70] separated palmitic acid, -hydroxypalmitic acid, stearic acid, and 12-hydroxystearic acid by normal phase thin-layer chromatography (NP-TLC) using a mixture of n-hexane and acetone in volume composition 7 : 3 (v/v) as mobile phase. This group of compounds is not active in the range UV light. Therefore suitable visualizing reagent was applied, namely, aqueous solution of rhodamine B, which activates the detected chromatographic band [70]. The linearity range of stearic acid using rhodamine B has been established to be from 2 μg to 20 μg [70]. However, short-chain fatty acids from ethanoic to octanoic were chromatographed on silica gel with n-hexane-acetone (4 : 1, v/v) and acetone-water-chloroform-ethanol-aqueous ammonia (30 : 1 : 3 : 5 : 1, v/v) as mobile phases [71]. New visualizing reagents (aniline blue, alkaline blue, neutral red, brilliant green, bromothymol blue, brilliant cresyl blue, thymol blue, bromophenol blue, phenol red, bromocresol green, and helasol green) were used for the detection of the free fatty acids and their ammonium salts. The results obtained for the free fatty acids and their ammonium salts by the use of the individual visualizing reagents depend on method of application—spraying or dipping. Dipping of chromatographic plates into solutions of the visualizing reagents leads to chromatographic spots of the fatty acids with better contrast than the spots obtained by direct spraying of the plates. Generally, better visualization was achieved with ammonium salt of the fatty acids than with the free acids. Of the reagents described in the scientific literature free fatty acids from ethanoic to octanoic can be visualized only by the use of bromocresol green, bromophenol blue, potassium permanganate, and methyl red. Among the visualizing reagents investigated, dipping of chromatographic plates into an aqueous solution of alkaline blue enables the detection of the free acids from propanoic to octanoic. The ammonium salts of fatty acids from ethanoic to octanoic can be detected by spraying or dipping using the visualizing reagents investigated except bromophenol blue [71]. Eighteen new reagents (alkaline blue, aniline blue, brilliant green, neutral red, bromothymol blue, thymol blue, phenol red, helasol green, bromocresol green, brilliant cresyl blue, bromophenol blue, eriochrome black, erythrosin B, eosin yellow, spands, thymolphthalein, and Congo red) were applied for visualizing eight esters of higher fatty acids after chromatography on silica gel, on a mixture of silica gel and kieselguhr and on neutral aluminum oxide [72]. For all the esters investigated the best detectability was obtained on the mixture of silica gel 60 and kieselguhr F254; it was worse on silica gel 60F254 and the worst on neutral aluminum oxide. Bromophenol blue was the best and most universal visualizing reagent for all the esters investigated on all the chromatographic supports [72].

3.1.8. Detection of Quinolones

The quinolones were detected by the Dragendorff, Forrest, and Folin-Ciocalteu reagents as well as iron (III) chloride in hydrochloric acid, iodic reagent, phosphomolybdic acid in sulphuric (VI) acid [73, 74], and terbium (III) and europium (III) ions [75]. Wardas et al. [76] also visualized quinolones using different indicators (eosin yellow, thymol blue, bromothymol blue, thymolphthalein, helasol green, spands, and titan yellow). For all the quinolone compounds studied, whether chromatographed on silica gel or aluminum oxide, the best detectability was obtained with helasol green [76]. Bober [77] showed the possibility of usefulness of the visualizing reagents such as Janus blue, methylene violet, gentian violet, methyl green, cresol red, Rhodamine B, malachite green, methylene blue, eosin yellow, and metanil yellow in the detection of selected quinolones and fluoroquinolones. The cinoxacin, pipemidic acid, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin were separated by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) on silica gel 60 using acetonitrile + water + acetic acid (6 : 40 : 4, v/v/v) as mobile phase. The visualizing effects were evaluated 3 times, namely, directly after dipping in solutions of visualizing reagents, after drying at a room temperature during 24 hours, and after dipping in solutions of visualizing reagents and drying at 120°C during 10 minutes. Cresol red was the best visualizing reagent for the detection of ofloxacin and pefloxacin. Janus blue was the best visualizing reagent for the detection of cinoxacin and pipemidic acid. The detection limits for ofloxacin, pefloxacin, cinoxacin, and pipemidic acid were 0.50, 0.75, 0.10, and 0.10 μg, respectively [77]. However, ciprofloxacin HCl in coated tablets can be also directly obtained on silica gel plate 60F254 after scanning in absorbency mode at 278 nm [22].

3.1.9. Detection of Hypnotic Compounds

Zolpidem and zopiclone are hypnotic reagents and can be used as potential drugs. Pushpalatha et al. [78] applied 0.5% solution of chloranilic acid in 1,4-dioxane for the detection of zolpidem and zopiclone on silica gel 60. Colored complex spots of zolpidem and zopiclone with chloranilic acid are formed in nonaqueous medium. Zolpidem with chloranilic acid gives dark pink spot with sensitivity of method equal to 2 μg. Zopiclone with chloranilic acid gives light pink spot with sensitivity of method equal to 5 μg.

3.1.10. Detection of Saponins

Saponins have anti-inflammatory, antifungal, hemolytic, cytotoxicity, molluscicidal, antitumor, antiviral, and immunomodulatory properties. Saponins were detected on silica gel 60 TLC and HPTLC plates with 10% sulfuric acid in ethanol or anisaldehyde-sulfuric acid reagent and heated at 110°C in an oven for 5 min and then evaluated in visible and UV light at . Saponins can be also visualized by using blood reagent [79].

3.1.11. Detection of Glucosamine

Glucosamine is an amino sugar, a prominent precursor in the biochemical synthesis of glycosylated proteins and lipids as well as dietary supplements used by adults. On heating the amino plate the glucosamine reacts to form a compound which strongly absorbs light between 305 nm and 330 nm, with weak fluorescence. The detection limit in absorption mode is equal to 25 ng per spot [80]. Ninhydrin has usually been applied, in combination with acetic acid, pyridine, and collodine, for the detection of glucosamine. Ammonium bisulfate, anisaldehyde, and Elson-Morgan reagents were also used for the detection of glucosamine. The detection limit of glucosamine with ninhydrin is equal to 1000 ng per spot [80].

Esters et al. [81] separated glucosamine from the plant extracts on a silica gel 60F254 HPTLC plates using 2-propanol-ethyl acetate-ammonia solution (8%) in volume composition 10 : 10 : 10 as mobile phase. For visualization, the plate was dipped into a modified anisaldehyde (detection reagent solution consisting of diethyl ether-glacial acetic acid-anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid in volume composition (136 : 91 : 1 : 20)) for exactly 2 s and heated at 120°C for 30 min in a drying oven. Glucosamine gives brownish-red chromatographic spots. Densitometric quantification was performed at 415 nm [81].

3.1.12. Detection of Hypoglycemic Drug

Pioglitazone is a hypoglycemic (antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic) drug used to improve glucose control in adults over the age of 18 with type 2 diabetes. Mohamed et al. [82] elaborated new sensitive and selective high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) coupled with densitometry for determination of pioglitazone hydrochloride in pharmaceutical formulations. Analysis was performed on silica gel 60 with methanol-chloroform (10 : 1, v/v) as mobile phase. Chromogenic reagent as visualizing reagent, namely, o-phthalaldehyde, gives the pink colored product with pioglitazone hydrochloride on chromatographic plate.

3.1.13. Detection of Selected Compounds in Extract from Different Plants

Nowak et al. [83] investigated the extracts from Asteraceae family (Centaurea bella, Dugaldia hoopesii, Inula aschersoniana, Serratula wolffii, Stizolophus balsamita, and Zoegea baldschuanica) using silica gel 60 plates. Three mobile phases were used. Methylene chloride-acetone mobile phases in different volume compositions (8 : 1, 7 : 1, 5 : 1, 3 : 1, 2 : 1, 1 : 1) were used for the separation of sesquiterpenes. However, methylene chloride-acetone mobile phase in volume composition 1 : 2 and methylene chloride-methanol in volume composition 5 : 1 were applied for the separation of ecdysones. Sesquiterpenes and ecdysones were detected on thin-layer using anisaldehyde reagent (anisaldehyde 0.5 mL, acetic acid 10.0 mL, methanol 85 mL, and sulphuric acid 4.5 mL) and heated at 103°C for 3 min. The spots of isolated compounds have different colors, namely, mauve (for stizolin), violet (for 9-hydroxyparthenolide), pink (for parthenolide and cynaropicrin), orange (for hymenoratin B), yellow for hymenoratin B 2-O-β-D-(6′-O-acetyl)-glucopyranoside, dark violet (for kandavanolide), dark blue (for cebellin O), cherry-red (for limonin A), grey (for acetylhymenograndin), and blue (for polypodine B) [83]. Anisaldehyde reagent (1.5 mL p-anisaldehyde, 2.5 mL sulphuric acid, and 1 mL acetic acid in 37 mL ethanol) and/or Natural Product Reagent (1 g diphenylborinic acid aminoethyl ester in 200 mL of ethyl acetate) were applied to the identification of thin-layer of the compounds from the extracts of the constituent plants (Urtica dioica L., Arctostaphylos uva-ursi L., Helichrysum italicum Roth, Ribes nigrum L., Citrus limon L., Centaurium erythraea Rafn., Melissa officinalis L., and Arctium lappa L.) [84].

Podolak et al. [85] elaborated HPTLC-densitometric method for quantitative determination of triterpene saponins in various parts of eight Lysimachia L.species (roots, stems, leaves, fruits, and flowers of Lysimachia nemorum L., Lysimachia nummularia L., Lysimachia vulgaris L., Lysimachia punctate L., Lysimachia thyrsiflora L., Lysimachia ephemerum L., Lysimachia ciliate L., and Lysimachia clethroides). Plates were developed with two mobile phases. First mobile phase was chloroform-methanol-water (8 : 7 : 1, v/v) for L. ciliata, L. punctata, and L. nemorum. Second mobile phase was n-butanol-acetic acid-water (6 : 1 : 3, v/v/v) for L. ephemerum, L. vulgaris, L. thyrsiflora, and L. nummularia. Plates with saponins after the separation were detected using 25% solution of sulphuric acid in methanol and heated at 105°C for 5 min. Saponin spots showed violet color. Quantitative determination of saponins was performed by scanning densitometry at 545 nm.

Yadav and Gupta [86] analyzed Premna integrifolia, which is general component of herbal formulation “Dashmool.” 10-O-trans-p-Coumaroylcatalpol, 4′′-hydroxy-E-globularinin, and premnosidic acid are major iridoid glycosides present in Premna integrifolia. These compounds were separated on silica gel 60F254 using ethyl acetate-methanol-water-acetic acid (80 : 12 : 6 : 2, v/v/v/v) as mobile phase. After development, the plates were dried and dipped into vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent (5 g vanillin + 475 mL ethanol + 25 mL sulphuric acid) and next were heated for 3 min at 110°C. Quantitative determination of investigated compounds was performed by scanning densitometry at 510 nm.

Maurya and Srivastava [87] elaborated new HPTLC-densitometric method for the simultaneous quantitation of four bioactive markers: ursolic acid, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol, and lupeol, in the stem and root barks of Alstonia scholaris. Analysis was performed on silica gel 60F254 plates using chloroform-methanol (99 : 1, v/v) as mobile phase. Ursolic acid, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol, and lupeol were visualized by vanillin-sulphuric acid reagent. Quantitative determination of ursolic acid, betulinic acid, β-sitosterol, and lupeol was performed by scanning densitometry at 680 nm.

Alkaloids occurring in leaves of Lobelia cardinalis (Campanulaceae) on thin-layer were visualized with Dragendorff’s reagent [88].

3.1.14. Detection of Vitamins

Hydrophobic and hydrophilic vitamins were detected by many visualizing reagents, which were described in review [29].

3.2. Detection by Photocatalysis of Different Drugs

Makowski et al. [89] applied the photocatalytic reactions to visualize drugs (antibiotics, antirheumatic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antitussive, broncholytic, spasmolytic, anesthetic, hypnotic, sympathomimetic, and vitamin). The drugs were separated on silica gel using a mixture of butanol, anhydrous acetic, and water (6 : 2 : 2, v/v/v) as mobile phase. After development and air-drying, plates were sprayed with the four visualizing reagents, namely, (a) 10 mL potassium permanganate with 0.25 g titanium dioxide powder, and after spraying, plates were illuminated for 10 min; (b) 10 mL potassium iodide with 0.25 g titanium dioxide powder, and after spraying plates were illuminated for 5 min and next were sprayed again with 2% aqueous starch solution; (c) 10 mL potassium bromide with 0.25 g titanium dioxide powder; (d) 10 mL potassium chloride with 0.25 g titanium dioxide powder. After spraying with (c) and (d) reagents the plates were illuminated for 10 min. Next these plates were sprayed with silver nitrate (0.1 mol·L−1) and illuminated again for 3 min. The most sensitive detections were obtained with a reagent containing titanium dioxide powder in potassium bromide solution. The detection limits with this reagent were 0.5 μg for benzyl-penicillin procaine, 0.2 μg for benzyl-penicillin potassium, 0.2 μg for penicillic acid, 0.5 μg for tetracycline hydrochloride, 0.5 μg for oxytetracycline hydrochloride, 0.5 μg for chlortetracycline hydrochloride, 0.2 μg for penicillamine, 0.3 μg for metamizole sodium, 0.2 μg for aminophenazone, 0.3 μg for salicylamide, 3 μg for codeine phosphate, 1 μg for aminophylline, 0.7 μg for papaverine hydrochloride, 10 μg for phenazone, 0.2 μg for procaine hydrochloride, 0.2 μg for phenobarbital, 0.5 μg for ephedrine hydrochloride, and 0.5 μg for ascorbic acid [89].

3.3. Microbiological Detection (Bioautography Detection)

Sensitive, selective, and rapid methods are presented for detecting inhibition of microbial growth by various compounds. Bioautography is a special method of the detection and is suitable for investigating antimicrobial activity by the application of thin-layer chromatography [90]. Bioautography can be realized in three versions, namely, contact, immersion, and direct [91]. Many antibacterial and antifungal compounds can be detected by bioautography method [9092]. Many applications of bioautography detection are presented and discussed in review articles [9092].

Amphotericin B [93] and Brazilian medicinal and fruit bearing plants [94] were visualized with Candida albicans. Shiitake mushroom was detected with Micrococcus luteus [95]. Two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography (2D-TLC) bioautography with C. fragariae was used for the detection of agricultural fungicides and antifungal drugs [96]. Vitamin B12 can be detected using Escherichia coli [97]. Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola was applied for the detection of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2 [98100], trans-resveratrol [101104], antibacterial compounds in both red and white wine extracts [104], and Chelidonium majus L. alkaloids [105]. Doxycycline [106], flumequine [106, 107], cefacetrile [108], enrofloxacin [109, 110], ciprofloxacin [109, 110], and Hypericum brasiliense polyphenols [111] can be detected with Bacillus subtilis. Essential oils and extracts from different plants can be visualized with Bacillus subtilis, B. cereus, Vibrio fischeri, C. sphaerospermum (Penzig), C. cladosporioides (Fresen.) de Vries, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola, Enterobacter cloacae, and Humulus lupulus [91, 112119]. However, Scaligeria tripartite essential oils can be detected with Colletotrichum acutatum [120]. Erythrina vogelii root was visualized with Cladosporium cucumerinum [121]. Gladiolus dalenii van Geel (Iridaceae) bulb extracts were detected with Aspergillus niger [122]. The antibacterial compounds from extract from Urginea sanguinea bulbs were visualized with Staphylococcus aureus [123]. The rapid TLC autobiographic methods were also elaborated for the detection of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors in various plants [124, 125].

4. Conclusion

(i)In this review, known indicators and dyes applied as new visualizing reagents and various visualizing systems as well as photocatalytic reactions and microbiological detection (bioautography detection) described should serve as a supplement to those used previously for the detection of selected drugs.(ii)The visualizing effect depends on the chemical structure of the visualizing reagent, the structure of the substance detected, and the chromatographic adsorbent applied.(iii)Particular application will have those visualizing reagents, which, with substances present in analyzed mixtures, will give diversified colors of chromatographic spots.(iv)The visualizing results of detected drugs depend on method of application—spraying or dipping.(v)Broadening index, detection index, characteristics of densitometric band, modified contrast index, limit of detection, densitometric visualizing index, and linearity range of detected compounds can be used for the evaluation of visualizing effects of applied visualizing reagents.(vi)Presented data indicate the detection progress of selected drugs investigated by thin-layer chromatography.

Conflict of Interests

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper.

Acknowledgment

This research was financed by the Medical University of Silesia as part of statutory research project KNW-1-013/N/3/0.

References

  1. H. Jork, W. Funk, W. Fischer, and H. Wimmer, Dünnschicht-Chromatographie, Reagenzien Und Nachweismethoden, Physicalische Und Chemische Nachweismethoden: GrUndlagen, Reagenzien, vol. 1, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1989.
  2. H. Jork, W. Funk, W. Fischer, and H. Wimmer, Thin-Layer Chromatography: Reagents and Detection Methods; Physical and Chemical Detection Methods: Activation Reactions, Reagents Sequences, Reagents II, vol. 1, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1994.
  3. J. Sherma and B. Fried, Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2003.
  4. A. Pyka, “Phenolic drugs, new visualizing reagents for detection in TLC,” in Encyclopedia of Chromatography, J. Cazes, Ed., pp. 1–8, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2004.
  5. A. Pyka, “Drugs, new visualizing reagents for detection in TLC,” in Encyclopedia of Chromatography, J. Cazes, Ed., pp. 1267–1273, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005.
  6. A. Pyka, “Phenolic drugs, new visualizing reagents for detection in TLC,” in Encyclopedia of Chromatography, J. Cazes, Ed., vol. 1, pp. 1–9, Taylor & Francis, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2007.
  7. A. Pyka, “Phenolic drugs: TLC detection,” in Encyclopedia of Chromatography, J. Cazes, Ed., pp. 1777–1789, Taylor & Francis, 3rd edition, 2010.
  8. E. Merck, Dyeing Reagents for Thin Layer and Paper Chromatography, Merck, Darmstadt, Germany, 1980.
  9. A. Pyka, “Lipophilic vitamins,” in Handbook of Thin-Layer Chromatography, J. Sherma and B. Fried, Eds., pp. 671–696, Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 2003.
  10. A. Pyka, “Vitamins, hydrophobic: TLC analysis,” in Encyclopedia of Chromatography, J. Cazes, Ed., pp. 2415–2425, Taylor & Francis, 3rd edition, 2010.
  11. V. D. Mody, K. K. Pandya, M. C. Satia, I. A. Modi, R. I. Modi, and T. P. Gandhi, “High performance thin-layer chromatographic method for the determination of sparfloxacin in human plasma and its use in pharmacokinetic studies,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1289–1294, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. C. F. Poole, “Planar chromatography at the turn of the century,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 856, no. 1-2, pp. 399–427, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Krzek and A. Kwiecień, “Application of densitometry for determination of beta-adrenergic-blocking agents in pharmaceutical preparations,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 308–313, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. De and P. Nariya, “A new, rapid online-HPTLC method for evaluation of DPPH reduction with ascorbic acid,” Journal Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 21–25, 2013.
  15. J. Sherma, “Thin-layer chromatography in food and agricultural analysis,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 880, no. 1-2, pp. 129–147, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Widiretani, I. Luailia, and G. Indrayanto, “Simultaneous densitometric determination of hydrocortisone acetate and 2-phenoxyethanol,” Journal Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 37–42, 2013.
  17. B. N. Patel, B. N. Suhagia, C. N. Patel, and H. J. Panchal, “A simple and sensitive HPTLC method for quantitative analysis of darunavir ethanolate tablets,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 232–235, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Yadav, R. M. Singh, S. C. Mathur, P. K. Saini, and G. N. Singh, “A simple and sensitive HPTLC method for simultaneous analysis of domperidone and paracetamol in tablet dosage forms,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 421–424, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Spangenberg, A. Seigel, J. Kempf, and W. Weinmann, “Forensic drug analysis by means of diode-array HPTLC using RF and UV library search,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 105, pp. 336–343, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. V. Mirakor, V. Vaidya, S. Menon, P. Champanerker, and A. Laud, “HPTLC method for determination of colchicine in a pharmaceutical formulation,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 187–189, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Maślanka, J. Krzek, and M. Stolarczyk, “Simultaneous analysis of hydrochlorothiazide, triamterene, furosemide, and spironolactone by densitometric TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 405–410, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Novakovic, K. Nesmerak, H. Nova, and K. Filka, “An HPTLC method for the determination and the purity control of ciprofloxacin HCl in coated tablets,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 25, no. 5-6, pp. 957–964, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Khakpour, A. Jamshidi, A. A. Entezami, and H. Mirzadeh, “HPTLC procedure for determination of levonorgestrel in the drug-release media of an in-situ-forming delivery system,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 326–329, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Starek and M. Rejdych, “Densitometric analysis of celecoxib, etoricoxib and valdecoxib in pharmaceutical preparations,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 399–403, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. W. Parys and A. Pyka, “Use of tlc and densitometry to evaluate the chemical stability of nicotinic acid and its esters on silica gel,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 33, no. 7-8, pp. 1038–1046, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Pyka, E. Wiatr, K. Kwiska, and D. Gurak, “Validation thin layer chromatography for the determination of naproxen in tablets and comparison with a pharmacopeil method,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 34, no. 10-11, pp. 829–847, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Bocheńska and A. Pyka, “Determination of acetylsalicylic acid in pharmaceutical drugs by TLC with densitometric detection in UV,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technology, vol. 35, pp. 1346–1363, 2012.
  28. A. Pyka, K. Bober, and A. Stolarczyk, “Densitometric determination of arbutin in cowberry leaves (Vaccinium vitis idaeae),” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 395–400, 2007. View at Scopus
  29. A. Pyka, “TLC of vitamins including nicotinic acid derivatives,” in Thin Layer Chromatography in Drug Analysis, L. Komsta and M. Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Eds., CRC Press, Taylor and Francis, 2013.
  30. M. Del Bubba, L. Checchini, L. Ciofi, S. Furlanetto, and L. Lepri, “Direct resolution and quantitative analysis of flurbiprofen enantiomers using microcrystalline cellulose triacetate plates: applications to the enantiomeric purity control and optical isomer determination in widely consumed drugs,” Biomedical Chromatography, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. R. M. Youssef, H. M. Maher, E. L. El-Kimary, E. M. Hassan, and M. H. Barary, “Validated stability-indicating methods for the simultaneous determination of amiloride hydrochloride, atenolol, and chlorthalidone using HPTLC and HPLC with photodiode array detector,” Journal of AOAC International, vol. 96, pp. 313–323, 2013.
  32. G. Mustafa, A. Ahuja, S. Baboota, and J. Ali, “Box-Behnken supported validation of stability-indicating high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) method: an application in degradation kinetic profiling of ropinirole,” Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 21, pp. 93–102, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Perisic-Janjic, R. Kaliszan, N. Milosevic, G. Uscumlic, and N. Banjac, “Chromatographic retention parameters in correlation analysis with in silico biological descriptors of a novel series of N-phenyl-3-methyl succinimide derivatives,” Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol. 72, pp. 65–73, 2013.
  34. Y. Chen and W. Schwack, “Planar chromatography mediated screening of tetracycline and fluoroquinolone antibiotics in milk by fluorescence and mass selective detection,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1312, pp. 143–151, 2013.
  35. N. W. Ali, M. Gamal, and M. Abdelkawy, “Chromatographic methods for simultaneous determination of diiodohydroxyquinoline and Metronidazole in their binary mixture,” Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 26, pp. 865–871, 2013.
  36. M. Kamińska and I. Choma, “The influence of perchlorate ion concentration on the retention of fluoroquinolones on cyano-silica plates,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 35, pp. 1306–1313, 2012.
  37. D. H. Shewiyo, E. Kaale, P. G. Risha et al., “Accuracy profiles assessing the validaty for routine use of high-performance thin-layer chromatographic assays for drug formulations,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1293, no. 42, pp. 159–169, 2013.
  38. A. Pyka, M. Budzisz, and M. Dołowy, “Validation thin layer chromatography for the determination of acetaminophen in tablets and comparison with a pharmacopeial method,” BioMed Research International, vol. 2013, Article ID 545703, 10 pages, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. J. Sliwiok, “The application of fuchsine dyes in the detection of higher fatty acids by thin-layer chromatography,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 108–110, 1968. View at Scopus
  40. Z. Gregorowicz and J. Sliwiok, “Indexes for estimation of developing reagents in thin-layer chromatography,” Microchemical Journal, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 60–63, 1970. View at Scopus
  41. A. Pyka, “Analytical evaluation of visualizing reagents used to detect tocopherol and tocopherol acetate on thin layer,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 312–330, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. A. Pyka, “Analytical evaluation of visualizing reagents used to detect ibuprofen on thin layers,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 578–588, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Pyka, W. Klimczok, and D. Gurak, “Evaluation of visualizing reagents for estradiol on thin layer by densitometric method,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 555–566, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. A. Pyka, “The application of densitometry to evaluate the visualizing effects of salicylanilide using brilliant green,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1943–1958, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Pyka and W. Klimczok, “Analytical and densitometric evaluation of visualizing reagents of selected aliphatic compounds on thin layer,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 10, pp. 1492–1510, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. O. Huetos, T. Reuvers, and J. J. Sanchez, “Comparative study of the thin-layer chromatographic detection of different corticosteroids,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 305–308, 1998. View at Scopus
  47. L. Grząbą and A. Pyka, Densitometric evaluation of the stability of the chromatographic bands of selected substances in thin-layer chromatography [Ph.D. thesis], Sosnowiec, Poland, 2011.
  48. W. Wardas and A. Pyka, “New visualizing agents for selected polybasic phenols and chlorophenols in thin-layer chromatography,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 6, pp. 320–322, 1993. View at Scopus
  49. W. Wardas and A. Pyka, “Visualizing agents for cholesterol derivatives in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 70–73, 1998. View at Scopus
  50. W. Wardas and M. Jędrzejczak, “New visualizing agents for selected bile acid in TLC,” Chemia Analityczna, vol. 40, pp. 73–79, 1995.
  51. P. K. Zarzycki, M. A. Bartoszuk, and A. I. Radziwon, “Optimization of TLC detection by phosphomolybdic acid staining for robust quantification of cholesterol and bile acids,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 19, no. 107, pp. 52–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Pyka, “TLC of selected bile acids: detection and separation,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 9, pp. 1373–1385, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. Sunshine, E. Rose, and J. Le Beau, “Barbiturate detection using thin-layer chromatography,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 9, pp. 312–316, 1963. View at Scopus
  54. R. R. Kulkarni, V. B. Patil, A. G. Bhoi, and S. Knandode, “A new spray reagent for detection of phenytoin by thin-layer chromatography,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 309–310, 1998. View at Scopus
  55. B. D. Mali, D. S. Rathod, and M. V. Garad, “Thin-layer chromatographic determination of diazepam, phenobarbitone, and saccharin in toddy samples,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 330–332, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. R. Makharadze, L. Adeishvili, T. Chelidze, N. Imnadze, and N. Nizharadze, “Simultaneous determination of cyclodol and diprazin by thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography,” Georgian Medical News, vol. 176, pp. 66–71, 2009. View at Scopus
  57. I. Quintens, J. Eykens, E. Roets, and J. Hoogmartens, “Identification of cephalosporins by thin layer chromatography and color reactions,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 6, pp. 181–186, 1993.
  58. J. Krzek, J. Piotrowska, B. Żuromska-Witek, U. Hubicka, and E. Łysoń, “Validation of the method of identification and quantitative determination of bacitracin in the form of bacitracin derivative with dabsyl chloride by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry,” Journal Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 67–72, 2013.
  59. A. Pyka, D. Gurak, K. Bober, and A. Niestrój, “Application of new visualizing agents for selected essential oil components in TLC,” Chemia Analityczna, vol. 47, no. 5, pp. 691–699, 2002. View at Scopus
  60. B. Kocjan, “Detection and identification of quinones in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 396–397, 2000. View at Scopus
  61. W. Wardas, I. Lipska, and K. Bober, “TLC fractionation and visualization of selected phenolic compounds applied as drugs,” Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 15–21, 2000. View at Scopus
  62. A. Pyka, D. Gurak, and K. Bober, “New visualizing reagents for selected phenolic drugs investigated by thin layer chromatography,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 25, no. 10-11, pp. 1483–1495, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. H. D. Smolarz, E. Medyńska, and G. Matysik, “Determination of emodin and phenolic acids in the petioles of Rheum undulatum and Rheum rhaponticum,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 319–322, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. V. Bilušić Vundać, Ž. Maleš, M. Plazibat, P. Golja, and B. Cetina-Čižmek, “HPTLC determination of flavonoids and phenolic acids in some Croatian Stachys taxa,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 269–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. D. N. Olennikov and V. V. Partilkhaev, “Isolation and densitometric HPTLC analysis of rutin, narcissin, nicotiflorin, and isoquercitrin in Caragana spinosa shoots,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 30–35, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. H. Wagner and S. Bladt, Plant Drug Analysis, London, UK, 2008.
  67. K. Głowniak, K. Skalicka, A. Ludwiczuk, and K. Jop, “Phenolic compounds in the flowers of Lavatera trimestris L. (Malvaceae),” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 104, pp. 264–268, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. P. Bhujbal and P. Sandhya, “Chromatographic analysis of bioactive markers in Vidangarista, an ayurvedic polyherbal formulation,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. W. Wardas and A. Pyka, “New visualizing agents for unsaturated higher fatty acids in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 63–67, 1997. View at Scopus
  70. A. Niestrój, M. Stefaniak, and J. Śliwiok, “Application of Rhodamine B in densitometric determination of long chain fatty acids in thin layer chromatography,” in Chemistry and Biochemistry in the Agricultural Production, Environmental Protection, Human and Animal Health, H. Górecki, Z. Dobrzański, and P. Kafarski, Eds., pp. 1–4, Czech-Pol-Trade, Prague, Brussels, 2006.
  71. A. Pyka and K. Bober, “Visualizing agents for short-chain fatty acids in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 141–146, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. W. Wardas and A. Pyka, “Visualizing agents for esters of higher fatty acids,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 8–15, 2001. View at Scopus
  73. D. Kowalczuk and H. Hopkala, “Separation of fluoroquinolone antibiotics by TLC on silica gel, cellulose and silanized layers,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 19, no. 109, pp. 216–222, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Thangadurai, S. K. Shukla, and Y. Anjaneyulu, “Separation and detection of certain beta-lactam and fluoroquinolone antibiotic drugs by thin layer chromatography,” Analytical Sciences, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 97–100, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. Juhel-Gaugain and J. P. Abjean, “Screening of quinolone residues in pig muscle by planar chromatography,” Chromatographia, vol. 47, no. 1-2, pp. 101–104, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. W. Wardas, A. Pyka, and M. Jędrzejczak, “New visualizing agents for quinoline, isoquinoline, and selected methylquinolines in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 6, pp. 238–241, 1993.
  77. K. Bober, “Determination of selected quinolones and fluoroquinolones by use of TLC,” Analytical Letters, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 1909–1913, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. P. Pushpalatha, R. K. Sarin, M. A. Rao, and T. R. Baggi, “A new thin-layer chromatographic method for analysis of zolpidem and zopiclone,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 449–451, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. Gleńsk, M. Włodarczyk, M. Radom, and W. Cisowski, “TLC as a rapid and convenient method for saponin investigation,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 167–170, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. M. Bleichert, H.-S. Eckhardt, K.-F. Klein, and B. Spangenberg, “A simple and reliable method for quantification of glucosamine in nutritional supplements,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 55–59, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. V. Esters, L. Angenot, V. Brandt et al., “Validation of a high-performance thin-layer chromatography/densitometry method for the quantitative determination of glucosamine in a herbal dietary supplement,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1112, no. 1-2, pp. 156–164, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. A. M. I. Mohamed, F. A. F. Mohamed, S. A. R. Ahmed, and Y. A. S. Mohamed, “New and selective HPTLC-densitometric method for determination of piolitazone hydrochloride,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 209–214, 2013.
  83. G. Nowak, M. Urbańska, J. Nawrot, M. K. Bernard, and R. Dawid-Pac, “Color and chemical reactions of selected sesquiterpene lactones and ecdysones from Asteraceae on TLC plates,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 289–293, 2013.
  84. M. Nicoletti, Ch. Toniolo, F. R. Gallo, G. Multari, and G. Palazzino, “Traceability in multi-ingredient botanicals by HPTLC fingerprint approach,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 243–248, 2013.
  85. I. Podolak, U. Hubicka, B. Żuromska-Witek, Z. Janeczko, and J. Krzek, “Quantification of saponin in different plant parts of Lysimachia L. species by validated HPTLC-densitometric method,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 248–253, 2013.
  86. D. Yadav and M. Gupta, “Isolation and HPTLC analysis of iridoids in Premna integrifolia, an important ingredient of ayurvedic drug Dashmool,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 260–266, 2013.
  87. A. Maurya and S. K. Srivastava, “A simple and reliable HPTLC method for the determination of four marker components in the quality control of Alstonia scholaris,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 26, pp. 254–259, 2013.
  88. C. B. Oppel, D. E. Dussourd, and U. Garimella, “Visualizing a plant defense and insect counterploy: alkaloid distribution in Lobelia leaves trenched by a plusiine caterpillar,” Journal of Chemical Ecology, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 625–634, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Makowski, E. Adamek, and W. Baran, “Use of photocatalytic reactions to visualize drugs in TLC,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 84–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. Botz, S. Nagy, and B. Kocsis, “Detection of microbiologically active compounds,” in Planar Chromatography, A Retrospective View for the Third Millennium, Sz. Nyiredy, Ed., Springer, Budapest, Hungary, 2001.
  91. I. M. Choma and E. M. Grzelak, “Bioautography detection in thin-layer chromatography,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1218, no. 19, pp. 2684–2691, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. Z. Cheng and T. Wu, “TLC bioautography: high throughput technique for screening of bioactive of bioactive natural products,” Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening, vol. 16, pp. 531–549, 2013.
  93. A. Fittler, B. Kocsis, Z. Matus, and L. Botz, “A sensitive method for thin-layer chromatographic detection of amphotericin B,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 18–22, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. G. Schmourlo, R. R. Mendonça-Filho, C. S. Alviano, and S. S. Costa, “Screening of antifungal agents using ethanol precipitation and bioautography of medicinal and food plants,” Journal of Ethnopharmacology, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 563–568, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. V. Molnár, F. Billes, E. Tyihák, and P. G. Ott, “Bioautographic detection of antimicrobial compounds in the edible Shiitake mushroom (Lentinus edodes),” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. 423–426, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. D. E. Wedge and D. G. Nagle, “A new 2D-TLC bioautography method for the discovery of novel antifungal agents to control plant pathogens,” Journal of Natural Products, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 1050–1054, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. K. Ueta, M. Nishioka, Y. Yabuta, and F. Watanabe, “TLC-bioautography analysis of vitamin B12 compound from the short-necked clam (Ruditapes Philipponarum) extract used as a flavoring,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 33, no. 7-8, pp. 972–979, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. Á. M. Móricz, E. Horváth, P. G. Ott, and E. Tyihák, “Raman spectroscopic evaluation of the influence of Pseudomonas bacteria on aflatoxin B1 in the BioArena complex bioautographic system,” Journal of Raman Spectroscopy, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1332–1337, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. R. M. Baošić, D. M. Milojkoviá-Opsenica, and Ž. L. Tešić, “The effect of the substituents of β-ketoiminato ligand of copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes on their retention on thin layers of polyacrylonitrile,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 412–416, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. Á. Móricz, K. H.-Otta, P. Ott, and E. Tyihák, “Separation and detection of aflatoxins using overpressured-layer chromatography and bioautography,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 417–420, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. E. Tyihák, P. Ott, Á. M. Móricz, G. Kátay, and Z. Király-Véghely, “Antibiosis, antibiotics, and the formaldehyde cycle: the unique importance of planar chromatographic techniques to progress in these fields,” Journal Planar Chromatography, vol. 17, pp. 84–88, 2004.
  102. E. Tyihák, L. Botz, P. Ott et al., “The combination of the overpressured layer chromatography and bioautography and its applications to the analysis of molecules influencing cell proliferation,” Chemia Analityczna, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 543–553, 2003. View at Scopus
  103. E. Mincsovics, G. Kátay, P. G. Ott, Z. Király-Véghely, Á. M. Móricz, and E. Tyihák, “Isolation of some antimicrobial compounds of red wine by OPLC flowing eluent wall technique,” Chromatographia, vol. 62, no. 13, pp. S51–S56, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. Z. Király-Véghely, Á. M. Móricz, P. G. Ott, G. Kátay, I. Bélai, and E. Tyihák, “Comparison of components from red and white wines for antimicrobial activity by biodetection after OPLC separation,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 32, pp. 1259–1272, 2009.
  105. Á. Sárközi, Á. M. Móricz, P. G. Ott, E. Tyihák, and Á. Kéry, “Investigation of Chelidonium alkaloids by use of a complex bioautographic system,” Journal Planar Chromatography, vol. 19, pp. 267–272, 2006.
  106. I. Choma, A. Choma, and K. Staszczuk, “Direct bioautography-thin-layer chromatography of flumequine and doxycycline in milk,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 187–191, 2002. View at Scopus
  107. I. Choma, “Thin-layer chromatography-direct bioautography of flumequine residues in milk,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 29, no. 14, pp. 2083–2093, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. I. M. Choma, C. Kowalski, R. Lodkowski, A. Burmańczuk, and I. Komaniecka, “TLC-DB as an alternative to the HPLC method in the determination of cefacetril residues in cow's milk,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1903–1912, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. I. M. Choma, “Screening of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in milk by HPLC and by TLC with direct bioautography,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 19, no. 108, pp. 104–108, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. I. M. Choma and I. Komaniecka, “Matrix solid-phase dispersion combined with thin-layer chromatography—direct bioautography for determination of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin residues in milk,” Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, vol. 28, no. 16, pp. 2467–2478, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. L. Rocha, A. Marston, O. Potterat, M. A. Kaplan, H. Stoeckli-Evans, and K. Hostettmann, “Antibacterial phloroglucinols and flavonoids from Hypericum brasiliense,” Phytochemistry, vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 1447–1452, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. D. Tasdemir, A. A. Dönmez, I. Çalis, and P. Rüedi, “Evaluation of biological activity of Turkish plants. Rapid screening for the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory potential by TLC bioautographic methods,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 42, no. 4-5, pp. 374–383, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  113. K. Polatoǧlu, F. Demirci, B. Demirci, N. Gören, and K. H. C. Başer, “Antibacterial activity and the variation of Tanacetum parthenium (L.) schultz bip. essential oils from Turkey,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 59, no. 4, pp. 177–184, 2010. View at Scopus
  114. K. Polatoǧlu, F. Demirci, B. Demirci, N. Gören, and K. H. Can Baser, “Antimicrobial activity and essential oil composition of a new T. argyrophyllum (C. koch) Tvzel var. argyrophyllum chemotype,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 59, no. 6, pp. 307–313, 2010. View at Scopus
  115. K. Polatoǧlu, F. Demirci, B. Demirci, N. Gören, and K. H. C. Başer, “Essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Tanacetum argenteum (Lam.) willd. ssp. argenteum and T. densum (Lab.) Schultz Bip. ssp. Amani Heywood from Turkey,” Journal of Oleo Science, vol. 59, no. 7, pp. 361–367, 2010. View at Scopus
  116. G. Horváth, N. Jámbor, A. Végh et al., “Antimicrobial activity of essential oils: the possibilities of TLC-bioautography,” Flavour and Fragrance Journal, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 178–182, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. A. D. A. Morandim, A. R. Pin, N. A. S. Pietro et al., “Composition and screening of antifungal activity against Cladosporium sphaerospermum and Cladosporium cladosporioides of essential oils of leaves and fruits of Piper species,” African Journal of Biotechnology, vol. 9, no. 37, pp. 6135–6139, 2010. View at Scopus
  118. A. R. Shahverdi, F. Abdolpour, H. R. Monsef-Esfahani, and H. Farsam, “A TLC bioautographic assay for the detection of nitrofurantoin resistance reversal compound,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 850, no. 1-2, pp. 528–530, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. G. Horváth, L. G. Szabó, É. Lemberkovics, L. Botz, and B. Kocsis, “Characterization and TLC—bioautographic detection of essential oils from sone Thymus taxa. Determination of the activity of the oils and their components against plant pathogenic bacteria,” Journal of Planar Chromatography, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 300–304, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. N. Tabanca, B. Demirci, K. H. C. Baser et al., “Characterization of volatile constituents of Scaligeria tripartita and studies on the antifungal activity against phytopathogenic fungi,” Journal of Chromatography B, vol. 850, no. 1-2, pp. 221–229, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. E. F. Queiroz, J.-L. Wolfender, K. K. Atindehou, D. Traore, and K. Hostettmann, “On-line identification of the antifungal constituents of Erythrina vogelii by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ultraviolet absorbance detection and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry combined with liquid chromatographic micro-fractionation,” Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 974, no. 1-2, pp. 123–134, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. J. A. Odhiambo, G. M. Siboe, C. W. Lukhoba, and S. F. Dossaji, “Antifungal activity of crude extracts of Gladiolus dalenii van geel (Iridaceae),” African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 53–58, 2010. View at Scopus
  123. V. Naidoo, D. R. Katerere, G. E. Swan, and J. N. Eloff, “Pretreatment of Urginea sanguinea bulbs used in ethnoveterinary medicine influences chemical composition and biological activity,” Pharmaceutical Biology, vol. 42, no. 7, pp. 529–533, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. Z.-D. Yang, Z.-W. Song, J. Ren, M.-J. Yang, and S. Li, “Improved thin-layer chromatography bioautographic assay for the detection of actylcholinesterase inhibitors in plants,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 509–515, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. A. Marston, J. Kissling, and K. Hostettmann, “A rapid TLC bioautographic method for the detection of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase inhibitors in plants,” Phytochemical Analysis, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 51–54, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus