Table 1: Descriptive statistics on the independent variables influencing the nonattendance at school for children aged 8–14 years during EICV 2000/01 and 2005/06.

Variables2000/01 survey2005/06 survey
ObservationsNot attend school (%)ObservationsNot attend school (%)

Total5.649678 (12)5.550253 (5)

Residence
 Rural4.749613 (13)4.395200 (5)
 Other urban centre37841 (11)56230 (5)
 Kigali52224 (5)59323 (4)

Distance to school
 <1/2 km2.402235 (10)2.965136 (5)
 1/2–2 km1.887235 (12)1.57261 (4)
 >2 km1.360208 (15)1.01356 (6)

Occupation household head
 Farm activities5.106634 (12)2.17095 (4)
 Nonfarm activities54344 (8)3.380158 (5)

Poverty*
 Nonpoor2.060166 (8)2.19086 (4)
 Poor1.075129 (12)1.11248 (4)
 Extremely poor2.514383 (15)2.248119 (5)

Financial transfers received
 None1.623189 (12)95144 (5)
 <RWF 5000 (<$10)2.606330 (13)1.67492 (6)
 >RWF 5000 (>$10)1.420159 (11)2.925117 (4)

Education of household head
 None4.167515 (12)1.97678 (4)
 1–5 years primary education51260 (12)1.83663 (3)
 Primary school + 970103 (11)1.738112 (6)

Presence of parents in household
 Both2.756282 (10)3.26494 (3)
 Father only25949 (19)21119 (9)
 Mother only1.620196 (12)1.29962 (5)
 Neither1.014151 (15)77678 (10)

Age
 8–10 years2.29385 (4)2.49243 (2)
 11-12 years1.627171 (11)1.57664 (4)
 13-14 years1.729422 (24)1.482146 (10)

Gender and position among sibling
 Male with old sibling908127 (14)99262 (6)
 Female with old sibling984123 (13)97543 (4)
 Male with old and young sibling1.533171 (11)1.56153 (3)
 Female with old and young sibling1.577150 (10)1.60558 (4)
 Male with young sibling599 (15)255 (20)
 Female with young sibling13626 (19)196 (32)
 Male without sibling22438 (17)18116 (9)
 Female without sibling22834 (15)19210 (5)

Time spent on chores per week
 <14 hours4.535462 (10)3.266148 (5)
 >14 hours1.114216 (19)2.284105 (5)

*The poverty line was calculated on the basis of the level of household consumption including purchases but also on consumption from other sources like own production and payments received in kind. The approach used follows standard international practices by adjusting for differences in prices faced by households (price deflator) and by taking into account the household composition (household size measured in terms of adult equivalents). Given the prices in January 2001, the poverty line was set at RWF 64,000 ($120) per adult per year, and an extreme poverty line (below which households could not even afford the basic food consumption basket, even without spending anything on nonfood items, was RWF 45,000 ($85) per adult per year. For January 2006 prices these poverty lines translate into RWF 90,000 ($170) and RWF 63,500 ($120) per adult per year, respectively (see [52]).