Table 1: Dependent variable means and standard deviations.

VariableTotal meanS.D.Female meanS.D.Male meanS.D.

Final grade74.32(8.89)76.21(7.78)68.41(9.74)
Final exam68.26(11.72)69.84(11.18)63.33(12.32)
Oral76.77(6.29)77.80(5.63)73.56(7.27)
Listening57.07(18.35)58.52(17.56)52.58(20.51)
Reading73.85(6.89)74.13(7.19)73.0(5.99)
Writing73.05(11.72)74.7(10.84)67.93(12.24)