length of solutions, : number of generations that is constant during these generations

(i) Initialization: , is an auxiliary variable, is a random initial population with the maximum length of solutions

is equal to

(ii) Evaluation: calculation of fitness value of each solution in the population

(iii)

(iv) If then and

(v) Parent Selection: randomly selection of parents from the population by a given parent selection method (e.g., roulette wheel)

(vi) Recombination: applying a recombination operator (e.g., 1-point crossover) on each pair of parents with the probability

of to generate new offspring

(vii) Mutation: applying a mutation operator (e.g., uniform mutation) on each offspring generated from the previous step with

the probability of

(viii) Addition: applying addition operator on each offspring generated from the previous step with the probability of while

the length of solutions must be less than or equal to

(ix) Deletion: applying deletion operator on each offspring generated from the previous step with the probability of while

the length of solutions must be greater than or equal to 1

(x) Evaluation: calculation of fitness value of offspring

(xi) Survival Selection: randomly selection of the individuals from the current population and generated offspring by a given

survival selection method (e.g., fitness based or age based)

(xii) Termination Condition: if termination condition(s) is satisfied, the algorithm is finished; otherwise go to step (iii).

When the algorithm is finished, the best solution with the highest fitness value is the output of the algorithm.

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