Table of Contents
Advances in Anesthesiology
Volume 2015, Article ID 517863, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/517863
Review Article

Pediatric Resuscitation: Outcome Effects of Location, Intervention, and Duration

Medical College of Wisconsin, Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226, USA

Received 24 September 2014; Accepted 24 December 2014

Academic Editor: Ming-Hwang Shyr

Copyright © 2015 John P. Scott et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. C. Shoemaker, P. L. Appel, and H. B. Kram, “Role of oxygen debt in the development of organ failure sepsis, and death in high-risk surgical patients,” Chest, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 208–215, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. V. M. Nadkarni, G. L. Larkin, M. A. Peberdy et al., “First documented rhythm and clinical outcome from in-hospital cardiac arrest among children and adults,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 295, no. 1, pp. 50–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. L. Atkins, S. Everson-Stewart, G. K. Sears et al., “Epidemiology and outcomes from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in children: the resuscitation outcomes consortium epistry-cardiac arrest,” Circulation, vol. 119, no. 11, pp. 1484–1491, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. A. G. Reis, V. Nadkarni, M. B. Perondi, S. Grisi, and R. A. Berg, “A prospective investigation into the epidemiology of in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation using the international Utstein reporting style,” Pediatrics, vol. 109, no. 2 I, pp. 200–209, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. A. Samson, V. M. Nadkarni, P. A. Meaney, S. M. Carey, M. D. Berg, and R. A. Berg, “Outcomes of in-hospital ventricular fibrillation in children,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 22, pp. 2328–2339, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Tibballs and S. Kinney, “A prospective study of outcome of in-patient paediatric cardiopulmonary arrest,” Resuscitation, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 310–318, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. L. Meert, A. Donaldson, V. M. Nadkarni et al., “Multicenter cohort study of in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 544–615, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. F. W. Moler, A. E. Donaldson, K. Meert et al., “Multicenter cohort study of out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 141–149, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Ortmann, P. Prodhan, J. Gossett et al., “Outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest in children with cardiac disease: a report from get with the guidelines-resuscitation,” Circulation, vol. 124, no. 21, pp. 2329–2337, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. I. Matos, R. S. Watson, V. M. Nadkarni et al., “Duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation and illness category impact survival and neurologic outcomes for in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrests,” Circulation, vol. 127, no. 4, pp. 442–451, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Girotra, J. A. Spertus, Y. Li, R. A. Berg, V. M. Nadkarni, and P. S. Chan, “Survival trends in pediatric in-hospital cardiac arrests an analysis from get with the guidelines-resuscitation,” Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 42–49, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Kuisma, P. Suominen, and R. Korpela, “Paediatric out-of-hospital cardiac arrests—epidemiology and outcome,” Resuscitation, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. B. Schindler, D. Bohn, P. N. Cox et al., “Outcome of out-of-hospital cardiac or respiratory arrest in children,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 335, no. 20, pp. 1473–1479, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Torres Jr., C. B. Pickert, J. Firestone, W. M. Walker, and D. H. Fiser, “Long-term functional outcome of inpatient pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Pediatric Emergency Care, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 369–373, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. A. Meaney, V. M. Nadkarni, E. F. Cook et al., “Higher survival rates among younger patients after pediatric intensive care unit cardiac arrests,” Pediatrics, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 2424–2433, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. A. Topjian, B. French, R. M. Sutton et al., “Early postresuscitation hypotension is associated with increased mortality following pediatric cardiac arrest,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 1518–1523, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. A. A. Topjian, A. E. Clark, T. C. Casper et al., “Early lactate elevations following resuscitation from pediatric cardiac arrest are associated with increased mortality,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. e380–e387, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. P. Morray, J. M. Geiduschek, C. Ramamoorthy et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: initial findings of the pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest (POCA) registry,” Anesthesiology, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 6–14, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. M. Bhananker, C. Ramamoorthy, J. M. Geiduschek et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children: update from the pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest registry,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 344–350, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. J. Ellis, M. C. Newland, J. A. Simonson et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest,” Anesthesiology, vol. 120, no. 4, pp. 829–838, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Ramamoorthy, C. M. Haberkern, S. M. Bhananker et al., “Anesthesia-related cardiac arrest in children with heart disease: data from the pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest (POCA) registry,” Anesthesia & Analgesia, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1376–1382, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. L. G. Braz, J. R. G. Braz, N. S. P. Módolo, P. do Nascimento Jr., B. A. M. Brushi, and L. R. de Carvalho, “Perioperative cardiac arrest and its mortality in children. A 9-year survey in a Brazilian tertiary teaching hospital,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 860–866, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. N. Bharti, Y. K. Batra, and H. Kaur, “Paediatric perioperative cardiac arrest and its mortality: database of a 60-month period from a tertiary care paediatric centre,” European Journal of Anaesthesiology, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 490–495, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. A. McLellan and T. S. Walsh, “Oxygen delivery and haemoglobin,” Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 123–126, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  25. J. S. Strobel, B. H. Kenknight, D. L. Rollins, W. M. Smith, and R. E. Ideker, “The effects of ventricular fibrillation duration and site of initiation on the defibrillation threshold during early ventricular fibrillation,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 521–527, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. A. Zaritsky, V. Nadkarni, P. Getson, and K. Kuehl, “CPR in children,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1107–1111, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. V. Nadkarni, M. F. Hazinski, D. Zideman et al., “Paediatric life support. An advisory statement by the Paediatric Life Support Working Group of the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation,” Resuscitation, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 115–127, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. R. J. Berens, L. D. Cassidy, J. Matchey et al., “Probability of survival based on etiology of cardiopulmonary arrest in pediatric patients,” Paediatric Anaesthesia, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 834–840, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Pearson and H. Duncan, “Early warning systems for identifying sick children,” Paediatrics and Child Health, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 230–233, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. H. Duncan, J. Hutchison, and C. S. Parshuram, “The pediatric early warning system score: a severity of illness score to predict urgent medical need in hospitalized children,” Journal of Critical Care, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 271–278, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. S. Parshuram, H. P. Duncan, A. R. Joffe et al., “Multicentre validation of the bedside paediatric early warning system score: a severity of illness score to detect evolving critical illness in hospitalised children,” Critical Care, vol. 15, no. 4, article R184, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. Tibballs and S. Kinney, “Evaluation of a paediatric early warning tool—Claims unsubstantiated,” Intensive and Critical Care Nursing, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 315–316, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. G. Salvatierra, R. C. Bindler, C. Corbett, J. Roll, and K. B. Daratha, “Rapid response team implementation and in-hospital mortality,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 2001–2006, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Al-Qahtani, H. M. Al-Dorzi, H. M. Tamim et al., “Impact of an intensivist-led multidisciplinary extended rapid response team on hospital-wide cardiopulmonary arrests and mortality,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 506–517, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. R. J. Brilli, R. Gibson, J. W. Luria et al., “Implementation of a medical emergency team in a large pediatric teaching hospital prevents respiratory and cardiopulmonary arrests outside the intensive care unit,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 236–246, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. J. Sharek, L. M. Parast, K. Leong et al., “Effect of a rapid response team on hospital-wide mortality and code rates outside the ICU in a Children's Hospital,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 19, pp. 2267–2274, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. Tibballs and S. Kinney, “Reduction of hospital mortality and of preventable cardiac arrest and death on introduction of a pediatric medical emergency team,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 306–312, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. C. P. Bonafide, A. R. Localio, K. E. Roberts, V. M. Nadkarni, C. M. Weirich, and R. Keren, “Impact of rapid response system implementation on critical deterioration events in children,” JAMA Pediatrics, vol. 168, no. 1, pp. 25–33, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. P. S. Chan, R. Jain, B. K. Nallmothu, R. A. Berg, and C. Sasson, “Rapid response teams: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 170, no. 1, pp. 18–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. Kotsakis, A.-T. Lobos, C. Parshuram et al., “Implementation of a multicenter rapid response system in pediatric academic hospitals is effective,” Pediatrics, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 72–78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. L. J. Knight, J. M. Gabhart, K. S. Earnest, K. M. Leong, A. Anglemyer, and D. Franzon, “Improving code team performance and survival outcomes: implementation of pediatric resuscitation team training,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 243–251, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. E. Kleinman, L. Chameides, S. M. Schexnayder et al., “Part 14: pediatric advanced life support: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. S876–S908, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Rivers, B. Nguyen, S. Havstad et al., “Early goal-directed therapy in the treatment of severe sepsis and septic shock,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 345, no. 19, pp. 1368–1377, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. Rixen and J. H. Siegel, “Bench-to-bedside review: oxygen debt and its metabolic correlates as quantifiers of the severity of hemorrhagic and posttraumatic shock,” Critical Care, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 441–453, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. M. Hoffman, N. S. Ghanayem, and J. S. Tweddell, “Noninvasive assessment of cardiac output,” Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 8, pp. 12–21, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. C. F. de Oliveira, D. S. F. de Oliveira, A. F. C. Gottschald et al., “ACCM/PALS haemodynamic support guidelines for paediatric septic shock: an outcomes comparison with and without monitoring central venous oxygen saturation,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1065–1075, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. N. S. Ghanayem, G. Wernovsky, and G. M. Hoffman, “Near-infrared spectroscopy as a hemodynamic monitor in critical illness,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. S27–S32, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. N. P. Bernal, G. M. Hoffman, N. S. Ghanayem, and M. J. Arca, “Cerebral and somatic near-infrared spectroscopy in normal newborns,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 1306–1310, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. M. Hoffman, N. S. Ghanayem, E. A. Stuth, R. J. Berens, and J. S. Tweddell, “NIRS-derived somatic and cerebral saturation difference provides non-invasive real-time hemodynamic assessment of cardiogenic shock and risk of anaerobic metabolism,” Anesthesiology, vol. 99, Article ID A1448, 2004, http://www.asaabstracts.com/strands/asaabstracts/abstract.htm?year=2004&index=16&absnum=2206. View at Google Scholar
  50. G. M. Hoffman, N. S. Ghanayem, R. J. Berens, M. C. Scanlon, and C. G. Weigle, “Reduction in critical indicators of shock by routine use of two-site NIRS in pediatric ICU patients,” Anesthesiology, vol. 106, p. A803, 2006, http://www.asaabstracts.com/strands/asaabstracts/abstract.htm?year=2006&index=6&absnum=1239. View at Google Scholar
  51. G. M. Hoffman, N. S. Ghanayem, K. A. Mussatto, R. J. Berens, and J. S. Tweddell, “Postoperative two-site NIRS predicts complications and mortality after stage 1 palliation of HLHS,” Anesthesiology, vol. 107, article A234, 2007, http://www.asaabstracts.com/strands/asaabstracts/abstract.htm?year=2007&index=16&absnum=1585. View at Google Scholar
  52. S. B. Chakravarti, A. J. C. Mittnacht, J. C. Katz, K. Nguyen, U. Joashi, and S. Srivastava, “Multisite near-infrared spectroscopy predicts elevated blood lactate level in children after cardiac surgery,” Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, vol. 23, no. 5, pp. 663–667, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. M. D. Berg, S. M. Schexnayder, L. Chameides et al., “Part 13: pediatric basic life support: 2010 american heart association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 3, supplement 3, pp. S862–S875, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. K. B. Kern, G. A. Ewy, W. D. Voorhees, C. F. Babbs, and W. A. Tacker, “Myocardial perfusion pressure: a predictor of 24-hour survival during prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs,” Resuscitation, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 241–250, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. N. A. Paradis, G. B. Martin, E. P. Rivers et al., “Coronary perfusion pressure and the return of spontaneous circulation in human cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 263, no. 8, pp. 1106–1113, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. T. Kitamura, T. Iwami, T. Kawamura et al., “Conventional and chest-compression-only cardiopulmonary resuscitation by bystanders for children who have out-of-hospital cardiac arrests: a prospective, nationwide, population-based cohort study,” The Lancet, vol. 375, no. 9723, pp. 1347–1354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. A. Berg, R. W. Hilwig, K. B. Kern, I. Babar, and G. A. Ewy, “Simulated mouth-to-mouth ventilation and chest compressions (bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation) improves outcome in a swine model of prehospital pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 27, no. 9, pp. 1893–1899, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. R. A. Berg, R. W. Hilwig, K. B. Kern, and G. A. Ewy, “‘Bystander’ chest compressions and assisted ventilation independently improve outcome from piglet asphyxial pulseless ‘cardiac arrest’,” Circulation, vol. 101, no. 14, pp. 1743–1748, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. A. Ewy, M. Zuercher, R. W. Hilwig et al., “Improved neurological outcome with continuous chest compressions compared with 30:2 compressions-to-ventilations cardiopulmonary resuscitation in a realistic swine model of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest,” Circulation, vol. 116, no. 22, pp. 2525–2530, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. M. Iglesias, J. López-Herce, J. Urbano, M. J. Solana, S. Mencía, and J. del Castillo, “Chest compressions versus ventilation plus chest compressions in a pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest animal model,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 712–716, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. The American Heart Association in Collaboration with the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation, “2005 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care,” Circulation, vol. 112, pp. IV-1–IV-5, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. D. Yannopoulos, T. P. Aufderheide, A. Gabrielli et al., “Clinical and hemodynamic comparison of 15:2 and 30:2 compression-to- ventilation ratios for cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1444–1449, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. R. M. Sutton, B. French, A. Nishisaki et al., “American Heart Association cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality targets are associated with improved arterial blood pressure during pediatric cardiac arrest,” Resuscitation, vol. 84, no. 2, pp. 168–172, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. Niles, R. M. Sutton, A. Donoghue et al., ““Rolling Refreshers”: a novel approach to maintain CPR psychomotor skill competence,” Resuscitation, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 909–912, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. E. P. Rivers, J. Wortsman, M. Y. Rady, H. C. Blake, F. T. McGeorge, and N. M. Buderer, “The effect of the total cumulative epinephrine dose administered during human CPR on hemodynamic, oxygen transport, and utilization variables in the postresuscitation period,” Chest, vol. 106, no. 5, pp. 1499–1507, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. A. Berg, C. W. Otto, K. B. Kern et al., “High-dose epinephrine results in greater early mortality after resuscitation from prolonged cardiac arrest in pigs: a prospective, randomized study,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 282–290, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. A. Berg, C. W. Otto, K. B. Kern et al., “A randomized, blinded trial of high-dose epinephrine versus standard-dose epinephrine in a swine model of pediatric asphyxial cardiac arrest,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 24, no. 10, pp. 1695–1700, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. B. M. Perondi, A. G. Reis, E. F. Paiva, V. M. Nadkarni, and R. A. Berg, “A comparison of high-dose and standard-dose epinephrine in children with cardiac arrest,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 17, pp. 1722–1730, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. A. Dieckmann and R. Vardis, “High-dose epinephrine in pediatric out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest,” Pediatrics, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 901–913, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. C. Carpenter and K. R. Stenmark, “High-dose epinephrine is not superior to standard-dose epinephrine in pediatric in-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest,” Pediatrics, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 403–408, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. A. Warren, E. Huszti, S. M. Bradley et al., “Adrenaline (epinephrine) dosing period and survival after in-hospital cardiac arrest: a retrospective review of prospectively collected data,” Resuscitation, vol. 85, no. 3, pp. 350–358, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. “2005 American Heart Association guidelines for cardiopulmonary resuscitation and emergency cardiovascular care. Part 12 pediatric advanced life support,” Circulation, vol. 112, pp. 167–187, 2005.
  73. V. Srinivasan, M. C. Morris, M. A. Helfaer, R. A. Berg, and V. M. Nadkarni, “Calcium use during in-hospital pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a report from the national registry of cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Pediatrics, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. e1144–e1151, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. H. J. Dalton, R. D. Siewers, B. P. Fuhrman et al., “Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for cardiac rescue in children with severe myocardial dysfunction,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 1020–1028, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. W. Turek, N. D. Andersen, D. S. Lawson et al., “Outcomes before and after implementation of a pediatric rapid-response extracorporeal membrane oxygenation program,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 95, no. 6, pp. 2140–2147, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. M. C. Morris, G. Wernovsky, and V. M. Nadkarni, “Survival outcomes after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation instituted during active chest compressions following refractory in-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 440–446, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. B. Alsoufi, O. O. Al-Radi, R. I. Nazer et al., “Survival outcomes after rescue extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pediatric patients with refractory cardiac arrest,” Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 134, no. 4, pp. 952e2–959.e2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. T. T. Raymond, C. B. Cunnyngham, M. T. Thompson et al., “Outcomes among neonates, infants, and children after extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for refractory inhospital pediatric cardiac arrest: a report from the National Registry of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 362–371, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. J. Wolf, K. R. Kanter, P. M. Kirshbom, B. E. Kogon, and S. F. Wagoner, “Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for pediatric cardiac patients,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 874–880, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. K. H. Polderman, “Mechanisms of action, physiological effects, and complications of hypothermia,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. S186–S202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. V. A. Negovsky, “Postresuscitation disease,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 942–946, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. S. E. Jacobs, R. Hunt, W. O. Tarnow-Mordi, T. E. Inder, and P. G. Davis, “Cooling for newborns with hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy,” The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD003311, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  83. S. A. Bernard, T. W. Gray, M. D. Buist et al., “Treatment of comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with induced hypothermia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 8, pp. 557–563, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. The Hypothermia after Cardiac Arrest Study Group, “Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 346, no. 22, pp. 1756–1756, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  85. S. Bernard, “Hypothermia after cardiac arrest: expanding the therapeutic scope,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. S227–S233, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. S. A. Bernard, K. Smith, P. Cameron et al., “Induction of therapeutic hypothermia by paramedics after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest: a randomized controlled trial,” Circulation, vol. 122, no. 7, pp. 737–742, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. J. Arrich, M. Holzer, C. Havel, M. Müllner, and H. Herkner, “Hypothermia for neuroprotection in adults after cardiopulmonary resuscitation,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 9, Article ID CD004128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. M. Holzer, “Targeted temperature management for comatose survivors of cardiac arrest,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 363, no. 13, pp. 1256–1264, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. B. Scholefiled, H. Duncan, and P. Davies, “Hypothermia for neuroprotection in children after cardiopulmonary arrest,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, vol. 2, Article ID CD009442, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. B. Suffoletto, M. A. Peberdy, T. van der Hoek, and C. Callaway, “Body temperature changes are associated with outcomes following in-hospital cardiac arrest and return of spontaneous circulation,” Resuscitation, vol. 80, no. 12, pp. 1365–1370, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. R. W. Hickey, P. M. Kochanek, H. Ferimer, S. H. Graham, and P. Safar, “Hypothermia and hyperthermia in children after resuscitation from cardiac arrest,” Pediatrics, vol. 106, no. 1, part 1, pp. 118–122, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. R. W. Hickey, P. M. Kochanek, H. Ferimer, H. L. Alexander, R. H. Garman, and S. H. Graham, “Induced hyperthermia exacerbates neurologic neuronal histologic damage after asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 531–535, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. M. M. Bembea, V. M. Nadkarni, M. Diener-West et al., “Temperature patterns in the early postresuscitation period after pediatric in hospital cardiac arrest,” Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 723–730, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. N. S. Abend, A. Topjian, R. Ichord et al., “Electroencephalographic monitoring during hypothermia after pediatric cardiac arrest,” Neurology, vol. 72, no. 22, pp. 1931–1940, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. A. A. Topjian, A. M. Gutierrez-Colina, S. M. Sanchez et al., “Electrographic status epilepticus is associated with mortality and worse short-term outcome in critically III children,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 215–223, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. S. K. Kessler, A. A. Topjian, A. M. Gutierrez-Colina et al., “Short-term outcome prediction by electroencephalographic features in children treated with therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest,” Neurocritical Care, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus