Table of Contents
Advances in Artificial Neural Systems
Volume 2010, Article ID 814702, 8 pages
Research Article

An Approach to Applying Feedback Error Learning for Functional Electrical Stimulation Controller: Computer Simulation Tests of Wrist Joint Control

1Department of Biomedical Engineering, Graduate School of Biomedical Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-11-901-7 Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579, Japan
2Department of Electrical and Communication Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8579, Japan

Received 11 June 2010; Accepted 13 October 2010

Academic Editor: Yutaka Maeda

Copyright © 2010 Takashi Watanabe and Keisuke Fukushima. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Feedback error-learning (FEL) controller that consists of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller and an artificial neural network (ANN) had applicability to functional electrical stimulation (FES). Because of the integral (reset) windup, however, delay or overshoot sometimes occurred in feedback FES control, which was considered to cause inappropriate ANN learning and to limit the feasibility of the FEL controller for FES to controlling 1-DOF movements stimulating 2 muscles. In this paper, an FEL-FES controller was developed applying antireset windup (ARW) scheme that worked based on total controller output. The FEL-FES controller with the ARW was examined in controlling 2-DOF movements of the wrist joint stimulating 4 muscles through computer simulation. The developed FEL-FES controller was found to realize appropriately inverse dynamics model and to have a possibility of being used as an open-loop controller. The developed controller would be effective in multiple DOF movement control stimulating several muscles.