Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2015, Article ID 632158, 7 pages
Research Article

Serological Evidence of Henipavirus among Horses and Pigs in Zaria and Environs in Kaduna State, Nigeria

1Department of Animal Production and Health, Faculty of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Federal University of Wukari, Katsina-Ala Road, PMB 1020, Wukari, Taraba, Nigeria
2Department of Veterinary Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, PMB 1045, Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria
3School of Life Sciences, W/A1316 Microbiology, Queen’s Medical Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2UH, UK

Received 28 August 2015; Revised 8 October 2015; Accepted 13 October 2015

Academic Editor: Béla Dénes

Copyright © 2015 Olaolu T. Olufemi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Henipavirus is an emerging, zoonotic, and lethal RNA virus comprising Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV), to which fruit bats are reservoir. Husbandry practices in Nigeria allow close contact between bat reservoir and animals susceptible to Henipavirus. This cross-sectional survey investigated antibodies reactive to Henipavirus sG antigen and associated risk factors in horses and pigs in Zaria, Nigeria. Using convenience sampling, 510 sera from horses () and pigs () were screened by an indirect Henipavirus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (CSIRO, Australia). Structured questionnaires were employed with questions on the demographics and management of the animals. Data were analysed using SPSS-17. 5. Seroprevalence was higher for horses managed intensively (21.1%); used for sports (25.5%); watered with pipe borne water (17.9%); fed commercial feed (22.3%); and fed in the pen (17.6%). Seroprevalence was higher for pigs managed intensively (58.1%); imported (69.5%); watered with pipe-borne water (31.3%); fed commercial feed (57.4%); fed in the pen (23.4%), and fed with feed prestored in a feed house (49.5%). Horses <5 years and pigs <6 months had higher seroprevalences of 18.1% and 21.3%, while the female horses and pigs had seroprevalences of 19.8% and 22.8%, respectively. Exotic horses and pigs revealed 25.5% and 55% and horses in Igabi and pigs in Giwa revealed 24.7% and 70.2% seroprevalence, respectively (). There is a suggestive evidence of Henipavirus in horses and pigs in Zaria, Nigeria, with a huge public health implication. Local and exotic pigs and horses, pigs in Zaria and Sabon-Gari, and horses in Zaria, Sabon-Gari, and Kaduna North are associated with the seroprevalence of henipaviruses.