Table of Contents
Advances in Biology
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 1526764, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/1526764
Research Article

Bacteriological Contaminants of Some Fresh Vegetables Irrigated with Awetu River in Jimma Town, Southwestern Ethiopia

1Department of Biology, College of Natural Sciences, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
2Institute of Biotechnology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Received 17 February 2016; Accepted 26 April 2016

Academic Editor: Dario De Medici

Copyright © 2016 Desta Weldezgina and Diriba Muleta. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. R. Lerici, M. C. Nicoli, and M. Anese, “The “weight” given to food processing at the “Food and Cancer Prevention III” symposium,” Italian Journal of Food Science, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 3–7, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  2. O. A. Ijabadeniyi, Effect of irrigation water quality on the microbiological safety of fresh vegetables [Ph.D. thesis], Pretoria University of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2010.
  3. L. M. Johnston, C. L. Moe, D. Moll, and L. A. Jaykus, “The epidemiology of produce associated outbreaks of foodborne disease,” in Microbial Hazard Identification in Fresh Fruit and Vegetables, J. James, Ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  4. L. R. Beuchat, “Ecological factors influencing survival and growth of human pathogens on raw fruits and vegetables,” Microbes and Infection, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 413–423, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. Pezzoli, R. Elson, C. L. Little et al., “Packed with Salmonella Investigation of an intestinal outbreak of Salmonella infection linked to contamination of pre-packed basil in 2007,” Foodborne Pathogens and Disease, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 661–668, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  6. N. Garg, K. L. Garg, and K. G. Mukerji, Laboratory Manual of Food Microbiology, I.K. International Publishing House, New Delhi, India, 2010.
  7. European Commission (E.C.), Risk Profile on the Microbiological Contamination of Fruits and Vegetables Eaten Raw. Report of the Scientific Committee on Food, SCF/CS/FMH/SURF/Final, 2002, http://ec.europa.eu/food/fs/sc/scf/out125_en.pdf.
  8. Centers For Disease Control And Prevention (CDC), “Food borne outbreak online database,” 2015, http://www.outbreakdatabase.com/details/taco-bell-restaurants-lettuce-2006/?
  9. L. R. Beuchat and J.-H. Ryu, “Produce Handling and Processing Practices,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 459–465, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. World Health Organization (WHO), WHO Guidelines for the Safe Use of Wastewater, Excreta and Greywater. Wastewater in Agriculture, vol. 2, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006.
  11. T. V. Suslow, M. P. Oria, L. R. Beuchat et al., “Production practices as risk factors in microbial food safety of fresh and fresh-cut produce,” Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 38–77, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. E. B. Solomon, C. J. Potenski, and K. R. Matthews, “Effect of irrigation method on transmission to and persistence of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on lettuce,” Journal of Food Protection, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 673–676, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. Ibenyassine, R. AitMhand, Y. Karamoko, N. Cohen, and M. M. Ennaji, “Use of repetitive DNA sequences to determine the persistence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli in vegetables and in soil grown in fields treated with contaminated irrigation water,” Letters in Applied Microbiology, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 528–533, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. P. Combarro, M. González, M. Araujo, A. C. Amezaga, R. A. Sueiro, and M. J. Garrido, “Listeria species incidence and characterisation in a river receiving town sewage from a sewage treatment plant,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 11-12, pp. 201–204, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. D. C. Johnson, C. E. Enriquez, I. L. Pepper, T. L. Davis, C. P. Gerba, and J. B. Rose, “Survival of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, poliovirus and Salmonella in marine waters,” Water Science and Technology, vol. 35, no. 11-12, pp. 261–268, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. H. Tambekar and R. H. Mundhada, “Bacteriological quality of salad vegetables sold in Amravati city (India),” Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 28–30, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. H. Ayçiçek, B. Sarimehmetoğlu, and S. Çakiroğlu, “Assessment of the microbiological quality of meals sampled at the meal serving units of a military hospital in Ankara, Turkey,” Food Control, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 379–384, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Ashenafi, “Microbial load, incidence and antibiotic resistance of some disease-causing microorganisms on raw food items in consumed Ethiopia,” MIRCEN Journal of Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 313–319, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. G. Aberra, T. Frew, T. Asmamaw, G. Mulu, and A. Sisaynesh, “A preliminary study of the microflora level of some fruits and vegetables: pre- and post-preservation,” The Ethiopian Journal of Health Development, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 57–65, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  20. B. Guchi and M. Ashenafi, “Microbial load, prevalence and antibiograms of salmonellaand shigella in lettuce and green peppers,” Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  21. D. Hailu, “Pollution status of Awetu stream as it crosses Jimma town, southwest of Ethiopia. Post basic degree project,” in Abstracts of All Public Health Faculty Graduate Student Research Projects, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  22. I. Deneke, Assessment of drinking water quality and pollution profiles along Awetu stream (Jimma) [M.S. thesis], Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2006.
  23. K. Sofonias and G. Tsegaye, “Microbial quality of Jimma water supply,” Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences, vol. 2, no. 1, p. 23, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  24. A. Alemu, W. Tsegaye, L. Golassa, and G. Abebe, “Urban malaria and associated risk factors in Jimma town, south-west Ethiopia,” Malaria Journal, vol. 10, pp. 173–200, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Shalini, Study on Microbiological Aspects of Fresh Fruit and Vegetables (Including Green Leafy Vegetables) in and around National Capital Region (NCR), Bhaskaracharya College of Applied Sciences, New Delhi, India, 2010.
  26. American Public Health Association (APHA), Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, American Public Health Association (APHA), Washington, DC, USA, 21st edition, 2005.
  27. L. John, An introduction to bacterial identification—general principles, 2001, http://www.jlindquist.net.
  28. T. R. Johnson and C. L. Case, Laboratory Experiments in Microbiology, Pearson Education, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 8th edition, 2007.
  29. M. Cheesbrough, District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries—Part 2, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2006.
  30. P. C. Prabu, “Impact of heavy metal contamination of Akaki river of Ethiopia on soil and metal toxicity on cultivated vegetable crops,” Electronic Journal of Environmental, Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 818–827, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. N. I. Faruqui, C. A. Scott, and L. Raschid-Sally, “Confronting the realities of wastewater use in irrigated agriculture: lessons learned and recommendations,” in Wastewater Use In Irrigated Agriculture, Confronting the Livelihood and Environmental Realities, C. A. Scott, N. I. Faruqui, and L. Raschid-Sally, Eds., pp. 173–185, CABI, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  32. M. H. Gerardi and M. C. Zimmerman, Wastewater Pathogens, Wastewater Microbiology Series, Edited by M.H. Gerardi, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005.
  33. K. Ibenyassine, R. A. Mahand, Y. Karakomo, B. Anajjar, M. Chouibani, and M. M. Enanaji, “Bacterial pathogens recovered from vegetables irrigated by wastewater in Morocco,” Journal of Environmental Health, vol. 69, no. 10, pp. 47–51, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  34. K. C. Kwashie, Microbial analysis of soil samples in a wastewater irrigated vegetable production site: case study at atonsu, kumasi [M.S. thesis], Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana, 2009.
  35. A. S. Angelidis, E. N. Chronis, D. K. Papageorgiou, I. I. Kazakis, K. C. Arsenoglou, and G. A. Stathopoulos, “Non-lactic acid, contaminating microbial flora in ready-to-eat foods: a potential food-quality index,” Food Microbiology, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 95–100, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. H. Aycicek, U. Oguz, and K. Karci, “Determination of total aerobic and indicator bacteria on some raw eaten vegetables from wholesalers in Ankara, Turkey,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 209, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. Tortora, Microbiology, Benjamin Publishing Co. Inc., New York, NY, USA, 5th edition, 1995.
  38. R. V. Sudershan, P. Rao, and K. Polasa, “Food safety research in India: a review,” Asian Journal of Food and Agro-Industry, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 412–433, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  39. R. J. Gilbert, J. de Louvois, T. Donovan et al., “Guidelines for the microbiological quality of some ready-to-eat foods sampled at the point of sale,” Communicable Disease and Public Health, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 163–167, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Motarjemi, F. Kaferstein, G. Moy, and F. Quevedo, “Contaminated weaning food: a major risk factor for diarrhoea and associated malnutrition,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 79–92, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. E. Erkan, A. Vural, and T. Ozekinci, “Investigating the presence of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CNS) in some leafy green vegetables,” Research Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 3, no. 8, pp. 930–933, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  42. M. N. Nipa, M. M. Reaz, M. M. Hasan et al., “Prevalence of multi drug resistant bacteria on raw salad vegetables sold in major markets of Chittagong City, Bangladesh,” Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 70–77, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  43. P. Amoah, P. Drechsel, R. C. Abaidoo, and W. J. Ntow, “Pesticide and pathogen contamination of vegetables in Ghana's urban markets,” Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 1–6, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. M. Goyal, C. P. Gerba, and J. L. Melnick, “Occurrence and distribution of bacterial indicators and pathogens in canal communities along the Texas Coast,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 139–149, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. Ikpeme, J. Nfongeh, M. E. Eja, L. Etim, and K. Enyi-Idoh, “Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of enteric bacterial isolates from dumpsite utisols and water sources in a rural community in cross river state,” Nature and Science, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 46–50, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  46. R. E. Godon, “The genus Bacillus,” in Handbook of Microbiology, A. I. Laskin and H. A. Lechevalier, Eds., vol. 1-2, pp. 319–336, CRC Press, Cleveland, Ohio, USA, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  47. Codex Alimantarius, Code of Hygiene Practice for Fresh Fruits and Vegetables, Secretariateof the CODEX Alimetarius Commission, Joint FAO/WHO Food Standard programme, Vialedelle Terme di Caracalla, Rome Italy, 2007.
  48. J. Santamaría and G. A. Toranzos, “Enteric pathogens and soil: a short review,” International Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. K. J. Smith, R. Neafie, J. Yeager, and H. G. Skelton, “Micrococcus folliculitis in HIV-1 disease,” British Journal of Dermatology, vol. 141, no. 3, pp. 558–561, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. M. A. Halablab, I. H. Sheet, and H. M. Holail, “Microbiological quality of raw vegetables grown in Bekaa Valley, Lebanon,” American Journal of Food Technology, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 129–139, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. M. Soriano, H. Rico, J. C. Moltó, and J. Mañes, “Assessment of the microbiological quality and wash treatments of lettuce served in University restaurants,” International Journal of Food Microbiology, vol. 58, no. 1-2, pp. 123–128, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. D. O. Ukuku, C. Liao, and S. V. Gembeh, “Attachment of bacterial human pathogens on fruit and vegetable surfaces. Atlanta (États-Unis),” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 98, pp. 380–396, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  53. E. S. Donkor, T. Nortey, A. Opitan, N. Dayie, and M. L. Akyeh, “Antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureus isolates and the effect of some media on susceptibility testing results,” The Internet Journal of Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1–5, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  54. H. Sina, F. Baba-Moussa, A. P. Kayodé et al., “Characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from street foods: toxin profile and prevalence of antibiotic resistance,” Journal of Applied Biosciences, vol. 46, pp. 3133–3143, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  55. J. Akbarmehr, “Antimicrobial resistance in Salmonella isolated from broiler chicken carcasses,” African Journal of Microbiology Research, vol. 6, pp. 1485–1488, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  56. M. O. Cardoso, A. R. Ribeiro, L. R. Dos Santos et al., “Antibiotic resistance in Salmonella Enteritidis isolated from broiler carcasses,” Brazilian Journal of Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 368–371, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. R. J. Ash, B. Mauck, and M. Morgan, “Antibiotic resistance of gram negative bacteria in rivers, United States of America,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 7–12, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  58. P. I. Umolu, E. N. Okoli, and I. M. Izomoh, “Antibiogram and beta-lactamase production of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from different human clinical specimens in Edo State, Nigeria,” West African Journal of Medicine, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 124–127, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. F. Mills-Robertson, S. S. Crupper, M. E. Addy, and P. Mensah, “Antibiotic resistance and genotyping of clinical group B Salmonella isolated in Accra, Ghana,” Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol. 94, no. 2, pp. 289–294, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. L. van Vuuren, “Time running out as Africa sprints towards MDG deadline,” The Water Wheel, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 25–27, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus