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Advances in Chemistry
Volume 2014, Article ID 547506, 12 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/547506
Review Article

Mycotoxin Analysis: New Proposals for Sample Treatment

Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, Campus Fuentenueva s/n, E-18071 Granada, Spain

Received 10 February 2014; Revised 22 July 2014; Accepted 22 July 2014; Published 7 September 2014

Academic Editor: Brijesh Tiwari

Copyright © 2014 Natalia Arroyo-Manzanares et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by different fungi, with different chemical structures. Mycotoxins contaminate food, feed, or raw materials used in their production and cause diseases and disorders in humans and livestock. Because of their great variety of toxic effects and their extreme heat resistance, the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is considered a high risk to human and animal health. In order to ensure food quality and health consumers, European legislation has set maximum contents of some mycotoxins in different matrices. However, there are still some food commodities susceptible to fungal contamination, which were not contemplated in this legislation. In this context, we have developed new analytical techniques for the multiclass determination of mycotoxins in a great variety of food commodities (some of them scarcely studied), such as cereals, pseudocereals, cereal syrups, nuts, edible seeds, and botanicals. Considering the latest technical developments, ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been chosen as an efficient, fast, and selective powerful analytical technique. In addition, alternative sample treatments based on emerging methodologies, such as dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction and QuEChERS, have been developed, which allow an increased efficiency and sample throughput, as well as reducing contaminant waste.