Table 1: Most common mycotoxins, main producing fungal species, and food commodities frequently contaminated.

Fungal speciesMycotoxinFood commodityMaximum permitted levelsa (μg Kg−1)

Aspergillus parasiticus Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2Maize, wheat, rice,
sorghum, ground nuts,
tree nuts, and figs
B1: 0.10–12
B1 + B2 + G1 + G2: 4–15
Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxins B1 y B2Idem
Metabolite of aflatoxin
B1 in mammals
Aflatoxin M1Milk and milk
Fusarium sporotrichioides Toxins T-2 and HT-2Cereals and cereal productsT-2 + HT-2: 15–2000b
Fusarium graminearum Deoxynivalenol
Cereals and cereal productsDON: 200–1750
ZEN: 20–400
Fusarium moniliforme
(F. verticillioides)
Fumonisins B1, B2Maize, maize
products, sorghum, and asparagus
B1 + B2: 200–4000
Penicillium verrucosum Aspergillus ochraceus Ochratoxin ACereals, wine, fruits, coffee, and spices0.50–80
Penicillium expansum PatulinApples, apple juice, and apple products25–50
Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus CitrininCereals, red rice, fruits, and cheesenr
Aspergillus versicolor SterigmatocystinCereals, coffee, ham, pepper, and cheesenr
Hypocreales (Claviceps purpúrea), Eurotiales Ergot alkaloidsCerealsnr

Range of maximum permitted levels in the EU, depending on the food commodity [6].
bRecommended level [7].
nr: not regulated.