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Advances in Chemistry
Volume 2018 (2018), Article ID 2598062, 8 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/2598062
Review Article

Antimicrobial Photodynamic Activity of Phthalocyanine Derivatives

1Department of Chemistry, Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844-00100, Nairobi, Kenya
2Department of Chemical Science and Technology, Technical University of Kenya, P.O. Box 52428-00200, Nairobi, Kenya

Correspondence should be addressed to Samuel N. Nyamu; moc.liamg@ujnmasumayn

Received 27 September 2017; Revised 11 December 2017; Accepted 15 January 2018; Published 19 March 2018

Academic Editor: Viktor O. Iaroshenko

Copyright © 2018 Samuel N. Nyamu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Microbial pathogens have increasingly shown multidrug resistance posing a serious threat to the public health. Advances in technology are opening novel avenues for discovery of compounds that will mitigate the ever-increasing drug-resistant microbes. Use of photodynamic photosensitizer is one of the promising alternative approaches since they offer low risk of bacteria resistance as they use generated reactive oxygen species to kill the microbes. Phthalocyanine (Pc) is one such photosensitizer which has already shown promising antimicrobial photodynamic therapeutic properties. Previous studies have shown effectiveness of the Pc against Gram-positive bacteria. However, its effectiveness toward Gram-negative bacteria is limited by the impermeability of the bacteria’s outer membrane which is made up of lipopolysaccharides layer. The effectiveness of this photosensitizer is determined by its photophysical and photochemical properties such as singlet/triplet lifetimes, singlet oxygen quantum yields, and fluorescence quantum yield. Therefore, this review focuses on the recent significance advances on designing Pc that have this improved property by either conjugating with nanoparticles, quantum dots, functional groups in peripheral position, considering effect of cationic charge, and its position on the macrocycle.