Table of Contents
Advances in Ecology
Volume 2015, Article ID 156041, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/156041
Research Article

Antler and Body Size in Black-Tailed Deer: An Analysis of Cohort Effects

1Department of Biological Sciences, Idaho State University, 921 South 8th Avenue, Stop 8007, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
2Department of Biology, Texas State University, 601 University Drive, San Marcos, TX 78666, USA
3Department of Environmental Science, Policy, & Management, University of California, Berkeley, 130 Mulford Hall No. 3114, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

Received 5 August 2015; Revised 26 October 2015; Accepted 4 November 2015

Academic Editor: Sveinn Are Hanssen

Copyright © 2015 Johanna C. Thalmann et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B.-E. Sæther, “Environmental stochasticity and population dynamics of large herbivores: a search for mechanisms,” Trends in Ecology and Evolution, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 143–147, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. D. Pitt and H. F. Heady, “Responses of annual vegetation to temperature and rainfall patterns in Northern California,” Ecology, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 336–350, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. K. L. Monteith, L. E. Schmitz, J. A. Jenks, J. A. Delger, and R. T. Bowyer, “Growth of male white-tailed deer: consequences of maternal effects,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 90, no. 3, pp. 651–660, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. O. Ogutu and N. Owen-Smith, “ENSO, rainfall and temperature influences on extreme population declines among African savanna ungulates,” Ecology Letters, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 412–419, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Bø and O. Hjeljord, “Do continental moose ranges improve during cloudy summers?” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 69, no. 7, pp. 1875–1879, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. Langvatn, S. D. Albon, T. Burkey, and T. H. Clutton-Brock, “Climate, plant phenology and variation in age of first reproduction in a temperate herbivore,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 65, no. 5, pp. 653–670, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. I. Herfindal, B.-E. Sæther, E. J. Solberg, R. Andersen, and K. A. Høgda, “Population characteristics predict responses in moose body mass to temporal variation in the environment,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 75, no. 5, pp. 1110–1118, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. E. J. Solberg, B.-E. Saether, O. Strand, and A. Loison, “Dynamics of a harvested moose population in a variable environment,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 186–204, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Aanes, B.-E. Sæther, and N. A. Øritsland, “Fluctuations of an introduced population of Svalbard reindeer: the effects of density dependence and climatic variation,” Ecography, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 437–443, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. G. Kie, R. T. Bowyer, and K. M. Stewart, “Ungulates in western coniferous forests: habitat relationships, population dynamics, and ecosystem processes,” in Mammal Community Dynamics: Management and Conservation in the Coniferous Forests of Western North America, C. J. Zabel and R. G. Anthony, Eds., pp. 296–340, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  11. K. M. Stewart, R. T. Bowyer, B. L. Dick, B. K. Johnson, and J. G. Kie, “Density-dependent effects on physical condition and reproduction in North American elk: an experimental test,” Oecologia, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 85–93, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. T. H. Clutton-Brock, M. Major, and F. E. Guinness, “Population regulation in male and female red deer,” The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 831–846, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. H. D. Picton, “Climate and the prediction of reproduction of three ungulate species,” Journal of Applied Ecology, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 869–879, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Post, N. C. Stenseth, I. Rolf, and J.-M. Fromentin, “Global climate change and phenotypic variation among red deer cohorts,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, vol. 264, no. 1386, pp. 1317–1324, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. E. Post and N. C. Stenseth, “Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates,” Ecology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 1322–1339, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. C. Forchhammer, T. H. Clutton-Brock, J. Lindström, and S. D. Albon, “Climate and population density induce long-term cohort variation in a northern ungulate,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 721–729, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. E. Richard, S. E. Simpson, S. A. Medill, and P. D. Mcloughlin, “Interacting effects of age, density, and weather on survival and current reproduction for a large mammal,” Ecology and Evolution, vol. 4, no. 19, pp. 3851–3860, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. Bernardo, “Maternal effects in animal ecology,” American Zoologist, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 83–105, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Festa-Bianchet and J. T. Jorgenson, “Selfish mothers: reproductive expenditure and resource availability in bighorn ewes,” Behavioral Ecology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 144–150, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. D. Albon, T. H. Clutton-Brock, and F. L. Guinness, “Early development and population dynamics in red deer. II. Density-independent effects and cohort variation,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 69–81, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. M. Gaillard, D. Delorme, and J. M. Jullien, “Effects of cohort, sex, and birth date on body development of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) fawns,” Oecologia, vol. 94, no. 1, pp. 57–61, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. A. Keech, R. D. Boertje, R. T. Bowyer, and B. W. Dale, “Effects of birth weight on growth of young moose: do low-weight neonates compensate?” Alces, vol. 35, pp. 51–58, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  23. M. A. Keech, R. T. Bowyer, J. M. Ver Hoef, R. D. Boertje, B. W. Dale, and T. R. Stephenson, “Life-history consequences of maternal condition in Alaskan moose,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 450–462, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. S. D. Côté and M. Festa-Bianchet, “Birthdate, mass and survival in mountain goat kids: effects of maternal characteristics and forage quality,” Oecologia, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 230–238, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. T. Schmidt, A. Stien, S. D. Albon, and F. E. Guinness, “Antler length of yearling red deer is determined by population density, weather and early life-history,” Oecologia, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. 191–197, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. E. D. Freeman, R. T. Larsen, K. Clegg, and B. R. McMillan, “Long-lasting effects of maternal condition in free-ranging cervids,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e58373, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Hamel, J.-M. Gaillard, M. Festa-Bianchet, and S. D. Côté, “Individual quality, early-life conditions, and reproductive success in contrasted populations of large herbivores,” Ecology, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 1981–1995, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. D. Mech, M. E. Nelson, and R. E. McRoberts, “Effects of maternal and grandmaternal nutrition on deer mass and vulnerability to wolf predation,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 146–151, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. N. Clements, T. H. Clutton-Brock, S. D. Albon, J. M. Pemberton, and L. E. B. Kruuk, “Getting the timing right: antler growth phenology and sexual selection in a wild red deer population,” Oecologia, vol. 164, no. 2, pp. 357–368, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. R. M. Sibly, W. Zuo, A. Kodric-Brown, and J. H. Brown, “Rensch's rule in large herbivorous mammals derived from metabolic scaling,” American Naturalist, vol. 179, no. 2, pp. 169–177, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. R. McCullough, “Male harvest in relation to female removals in a black-tailed deer population,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 46–58, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. H. Murphy and M. F. Heady, “Vascular plants of the Hopland Field Station, Mendocino County, California,” Wasmann Journal of Biology, vol. 41, no. 1-2, pp. 53–96, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. M. Conner, M. M. Jaeger, T. J. Weller, and D. R. McCullough, “Effect of coyote removal on sheep depredation in northern California,” Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 690–699, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. C. Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2012, Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2014.
  35. K. Aho, Asbio: A Collection of Statistical Tools for Biologists, CRAN, 2014.
  36. R. D. Cameron and D. B. Stone, “To weigh or to mass? The question is in the balance,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 23, no. 1, p. 109, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  37. A. E. Anderson, D. E. Medin, and D. C. Bowden, “Growth and morphometry of the carcass, selected bones, organs, and glands of mule deer,” Wildlife Monographs, no. 39, pp. 3–122, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  38. D. R. McCullough and P. Beier, “Upper vs. Lower molars for cementum annuli age determination of deer,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 705–706, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. D. C. Thomas and P. J. Bandy, “Accuracy of dental-wear age estimates of black-tailed deer,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 39, no. 4, pp. 674–678, 1975. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. D. P. Swain, “A problem with the use of meristic characters to estimate developmental stability,” The American Naturalist, vol. 129, no. 5, pp. 761–768, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. K. M. Stewart, R. T. Bowyer, J. G. Kie, and W. C. Gasaway, “Antler size relative to body mass in moose: tradeoffs associated with reproduction,” Alces, vol. 36, pp. 77–84, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  42. R. T. Bowyer, K. M. Stewart, J. G. Kie, and W. C. Gasaway, “Fluctuating asymmetry in antlers of Alaskan moose: size matters,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 814–824, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. J. Goss, Deer Antlers, Regeneration, Evolution and Function, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1983.
  44. C. Vanpé, J.-M. Gaillard, P. Kjellander et al., “Antler size provides an honest signal of male phenotypic quality in roe deer,” The American Naturalist, vol. 169, no. 4, pp. 481–493, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. A. Nelson, Fishmethods: Fishery Science Methods and Models in R, CRAN, 2014.
  46. A. J. Fabens, “Properties and fitting of the von bertalanffy growth curve,” Growth, Development and Aging, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 265–289, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. E. M. Zullinger, R. E. Ricklefs, K. H. Redford, and G. M. Mace, “Fitting sigmoidal equations to mammalian growth curves,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 65, no. 4, pp. 607–636, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. H. Walter and E. Box, “Global classification of natural terrestrial ecosystems,” Vegetatio, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 75–81, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. P. J. Pekins, K. S. Smith, and W. W. Mautz, “The energy cost of gestation in white-tailed deer,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 76, no. 6, pp. 1091–1097, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. T. Bowyer, “Timing of parturition and lactation in southern mule deer,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 138–145, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. Fox and S. Weisberg, An R Companion to Applied Regression, Sage, Thousand Oaks, Calif, USA, 2010.
  52. K. Aho, Foundational and Applied Statistics for Biologists Using R, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2014.
  53. K. Barton, MuMIn: Multi-Model Inference, CRAN, 2014.
  54. K. P. Burnham and D. R. Anderson, Model Selection and Multimodel Inference: A Practical Information-Theoretic Approach, Springer Science & Business Media, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2002. View at MathSciNet
  55. T. W. Arnold, “Uninformative parameters and model selection using akaike's information criterion,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 74, no. 6, pp. 1175–1178, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. W. J. Conover, Practical Nonparametric Statistics, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Tex, USA; John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1980.
  57. R. F. Dasmann and R. D. Taber, “Behavior of Columbian black-tailed deer with reference to population ecology,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 143–164, 1956. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  58. R. T. Bowyer, C. B. Vernon, M. K. Stewart, C. J. Whiting, and L. K. Monteith, “Density dependence in ungulates: a review of causes, and concepts with some clarifications,” California Fish and Game, vol. 100, no. 3, pp. 550–572, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. B. M. Pierce, V. C. Bleich, K. L. Monteith, and R. T. Bowyer, “Top-down versus bottom-up forcing: evidence from mountain lions and mule deer,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 93, no. 4, pp. 977–988, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. L. Monteith, V. C. Bleich, T. R. Stephenson et al., “Life-history characteristics of mule deer: effects of nutrition in a variable environment,” Wildlife Monographs, vol. 186, no. 1, pp. 1–62, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. R. McCullough, “Failure of the tooth cementum aging technique with reduced population density of deer,” Wildlife Society Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 722–724, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. Beckerman, T. G. Benton, E. Ranta, V. Kaitala, and P. Lundberg, “Population dynamic consequences of delayed life-history effects,” Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 263–269, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. Douhard, J.-M. Gaillard, D. Delorme et al., “Variation in adult body mass of roe deer: early environmental conditions influence early and late body growth of females,” Ecology, vol. 94, no. 8, pp. 1805–1814, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. Mobæk, A. Mysterud, Ø. Holand, and G. Austrheim, “Temporal variation in density dependent body growth of a large herbivore,” Oikos, vol. 122, no. 3, pp. 421–427, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. L. D. Mech, R. E. McRoberts, R. O. Peterson, and R. E. Page, “Relationship of deer and moose populations to previous winters' snow,” The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 615–627, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. B. K. Strickland, S. Demarais, and P. D. Gerard, “Variation in mass and lactation among cohorts of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus,” Wildlife Biology, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 263–271, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. K. L. Gee, S. L. Webb, and P. D. Jones, “Age-specific changes in body mass and delayed physical development of a known-aged sample of wild, white-tailed deer,” Wildlife Biology in Practice, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 69–84, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. D. M. Wolcott, J. Asmus, and F. W. Weckerly, “Overcoming cohort effects in a Mediterranean ecosystem: the role of density and precipitation on southern mule deer body mass,” The Journal of Wildlife Management, vol. 78, no. 8, pp. 1335–1342, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. R. G. White, “Foraging patterns and their multiplier effects on productivity of northern ungulates,” Oikos, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 377–384, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. E. A. Lenart, R. T. Bowyer, J. Ver Hoef, and R. W. Ruess, “Climate change and caribou: effects of summer weather on forage,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 80, no. 4, pp. 664–678, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. R. C. Cook, D. L. Murray, J. G. Cook, P. Zager, and S. L. Monfort, “Nutritional influences on breeding dynamics in elk,” Canadian Journal of Zoology, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 845–853, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. K. L. Monteith, T. R. Stephenson, V. C. Bleich, M. M. Conner, B. M. Pierce, and R. T. Bowyer, “Risk-sensitive allocation in seasonal dynamics of fat and protein reserves in a long-lived mammal,” Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 377–388, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. R. T. Bowyer, “Antler characteristics as related to social status of male southern mule deer,” The Southwestern Naturalist, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 289–298, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  74. T. H. Clutton-Brock, M. Major, S. D. Albon, and F. E. Guinness, “Early development and population dynamics in red deer. I. Density-dependent effects on juvenile survival,” The Journal of Animal Ecology, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 53–67, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. E. J. Solberg, A. Loison, J.-M. Gaillard, and M. Heim, “Lasting effects of conditions at birth on moose body mass,” Ecography, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 677–687, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. C. Azorit, M. Analla, R. Carrasco, and J. Muñoz-Cobo, “Influence of age and environment on antler traits in Spanish red deer (Cervus elaphus hispanicus),” Zeitschrift für Jagdwissenschaft, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 137–144, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. R. B. Weladji, Ø. Holand, G. Steinheim, J. E. Colman, H. Gjøstein, and A. Kosmo, “Sexual dimorphism and intercorhort variation in reindeer calf antler length is associated with density and weather,” Oecologia, vol. 145, no. 4, pp. 549–555, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. M. Festa-Bianchet and R. Lee, “Guns, sheep and genes: when and why trophy hunting may be a selective pressure,” in Recreational Hunting, Conservation and Rural Livelihoods: Science and Practice, pp. 97–107, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  79. K. L. Monteith, R. A. Long, V. C. Bleich, J. R. Heffelfinger, P. R. Krausman, and R. T. Bowyer, “Effects of harvest, culture, and climate on trends in size of horn-like structures in trophy ungulates,” Wildlife Monographs, vol. 183, no. 1, pp. 1–28, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus