Table of Contents
Advances in Electrical Engineering
Volume 2014, Article ID 851796, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/851796
Research Article

Musical Rhythms Affect Heart Rate Variability: Algorithm and Models

The Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Room 720, Engineering Building 5, 1001 University Road, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan

Received 15 April 2014; Accepted 21 August 2014; Published 17 September 2014

Academic Editor: George E. Tsekouras

Copyright © 2014 Hui-Min Wang and Sheng-Chieh Huang. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

There were a lot of psychological music experiments and models but there were few psychological rhythm experiments and models. There were a lot of physiological music experiments but there were few physiological music models. There were few physiological rhythm experiments but there was no physiological rhythm model. We proposed a physiological rhythm model to fill this gap. Twenty-two participants, 4 drum loops as stimuli, and electrocardiogram (ECG) were employed in this work. We designed an algorithm to map tempo, complexity, and energy into two heart rate variability (HRV) measures, the standard deviation of normal-to-normal heartbeats (SDNN) and the ratio of low- and high-frequency powers (LF/HF); these two measures form the physiological valence/arousal plane. There were four major findings. Initially, simple and loud rhythms enhanced arousal. Secondly, the removal of fast and loud rhythms decreased arousal. Thirdly, fast rhythms increased valence. Finally, the removal of fast and quiet rhythms increased valence. Our work extended the psychological model to the physiological model and deepened the musical model into the rhythmic model. Moreover, this model could be the rules of automatic music generating systems.