Table of Contents
Advances in Endocrinology
Volume 2015, Article ID 254042, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/254042
Review Article

Cystatin C and Its Role in Patients with Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

1Endocrine Division, Dubai Hospital, P.O. Box 7272, Dubai, UAE
2Nephrology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, P.O. Box 7047-112, Cairo, Egypt
3Nephrology Division, Dubai Hospital, Dubai Health Authority, Dubai, UAE
4Diabetology Unit, Rashid Hospital, P.O. Box 4545, Dubai, UAE

Received 12 July 2014; Revised 14 October 2014; Accepted 20 October 2014

Academic Editor: Tomohito Gohda

Copyright © 2015 Alaaeldin M. Bashier et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is the commonest cause of CKD. It is the leading cause of new patients requiring renal replacement therapy, accounting for 40%, 34%, and 30% of cases in United States, Germany, and Australia, respectively. Recent studies have shown that a low-molecular weight protein, cystatin C, freely filtered by the kidneys is a novel biomarker that may be used for detection of early renal dysfunction in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Cystatin C has also been shown to detect cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes and it may also be linked with incident type 2 diabetes in obese patients. We aim to review current evidence based literature on use of cystatin C for early detection of diabetic nephropathy due to type 1 and type 2 diabetes in comparison to conventional methods and explore its association with other comorbidities.