Table of Contents
Advances in Epidemiology
Volume 2016, Article ID 1038715, 11 pages
Research Article

Association between Perceived Built Environment and Prevalent Hypertension among South African Adults

1School of Public Health, University of Western Cape, Robert Sobukwe Road, Bellville, Cape Town 7535, South Africa
2Noncommunicable Disease Unit, South African Medical Research Council, Francie van Zijl Drive, Parow Valley, P.O. Box 19070, Tygerberg, Cape Town 7505, South Africa
3Division of Exercise Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Human Biology, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Cape Town, P.O. Box 115, Newlands, Cape Town 7725, South Africa

Received 23 February 2016; Accepted 19 May 2016

Academic Editor: Masahito Fushimi

Copyright © 2016 Pasmore Malambo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Introduction. The association between perceived built environmental attributes and hypertension among adults has received little attention in an African context. We investigated the association between the perceived built environment and prevalent hypertension in adult South Africans. Method. A cross-sectional study was conducted using 2008-2009 Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology data among South African () adults aged 35 years. Perceived built environment was assessed using the neighborhood environment walkability scale questionnaire. Prevalent hypertension was defined as previously diagnosed by a physician, screen-detected hypertension as 140/90 mmHg, and a combination of both as any hypertension. Logistic regressions were applied for analyses. Results. In crude logistic regressions, self-reported hypertension was associated with land use mix-diversity, street connectivity, infrastructure for walking/cycling, aesthetics, traffic, and crime. In adjusted model, land use mix-diversity was significantly associated with self-reported hypertension. In similar multivariable models, the direction and magnitude of the effects were mostly similar to the outcomes of “screen-detected hypertension” which was further predicted by perceived lack of safety from traffic. Conclusion. Perceived built environment attributes were significantly associated with hypertension. This has relevance to population-based approaches to hypertension prevention and control.