Table of Contents
Advances in Geology
Volume 2015, Article ID 968573, 14 pages
Research Article

Paleocurrents, Paleohydraulics, and Palaegeography of Miocene-Pliocene Siwalik Foreland Basin of India

1Directorate of Geology & Mining UP, Khanij Bhavan, Lucknow 226001, India
2Department of Geology, Shri JNPG College, Lucknow 226001, India

Received 1 August 2014; Revised 1 December 2014; Accepted 3 December 2014

Academic Editor: Okan Tuysuz

Copyright © 2015 Zahid A. Khan and Ram Chandra Tewari. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Early Miocene-Pliocene Middle Siwalik Subgroup of Kuluchaur area, Uttarakhand, North India, comprises sheet-like, coarse to medium grained, cross bedded sandstone bodies and multistoreyed variegated mudstones. Paleocurrent study shows commonly unimodal and locally bimodal distribution and displays a high magnitude of resultant () oriented towards south-southwest (206°  ±  42.27°). Palaeochannel morphological attributes suggest that the depositing river system was about 230 m wide and 4.5 m deep. These broad, shallow, and low sinuous channels with extensive flood plain flowed on a steeper slope (0.00043 degrees) with flow velocity of 60–140 cm/sec. It is visualized that the immature Middle Siwalik rocks were deposited by southward flowing braided rivers transverse to the Himalayas, predominantly in the form of overlapping alluvial fans similar to those depositing sediments at present in the Indo-Gangetic plains. Fairly consistent fluvial palaeoslopes, together with enormous thickness of sediments, are evidences of rapid subsidence of the basin. We conclude that the paleogeography of Indian subcontinent established at the onset of Miocene-Pliocene Siwalik sedimentation is continuing till today.