Ground water resources for irrigated agriculture are becoming increasing limited in semiarid regions of the world. Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) and a no-till conservation tillage system were evaluated over 3 years on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.) production and fiber quality in north Texas. Subsurface drip irrigation significantly increased cotton yields over that from furrow irrigation in 2 of 3 yr. When averaged over 3 yr, the cover crop treatments on 1 and 2 m drip line spacing and a 100% ET replacement yielded numerically more than the companion treatments without a cover crop. Across years, the SDI treatments significantly increased loan values by an average of $0.045 kg1 over furrow-irrigated cotton. Within SDI, deficit irrigation did not appear to affect cotton yield in proportion to the amount of restricted irrigation. In 2003, a 50% reduction in ET replacement under conventional tillage reduced yield only 22%, indicating that a 100% ET replacement may not be necessary to produce economically acceptable yields. Results from this study provide preliminary evidence that cover crops may actually prove beneficial under SDI systems and could play a role in developing best management practices that incorporate conservation tillage practices.