Table of Contents
Advances in Hepatology
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 742931, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/742931
Review Article

NADPH Oxidases in Chronic Liver Diseases

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, UC Davis Medical Center, 4150 V Street, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA

Received 15 July 2014; Accepted 30 October 2014; Published 30 November 2014

Academic Editor: Jose J. Marin

Copyright © 2014 Joy X. Jiang and Natalie J. Török. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Oxidative stress is a common feature observed in a wide spectrum of chronic liver diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidases (NOXs) are emerging as major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Several major isoforms are expressed in the liver, including NOX1, NOX2, and NOX4. While the phagocytic NOX2 has been known to play an important role in Kupffer cell and neutrophil phagocytic activity and inflammation, the nonphagocytic NOX homologues are increasingly recognized as key enzymes in oxidative injury and wound healing. In this review, we will summarize the current advances in knowledge on the regulatory pathways of NOX activation, their cellular distribution, and their role in the modulation of redox signaling in liver diseases.