Table of Contents
Advances in Nursing
Volume 2014, Article ID 801740, 12 pages
Review Article

An Integrative Review of the Methods Used to Research the Prevalence of Violence against Women in Pakistan

1School of Nursing, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1
2School of Nursing, Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, Canada L8S 4K1

Received 19 February 2014; Accepted 11 July 2014; Published 7 September 2014

Academic Editor: Ann M. Mitchell

Copyright © 2014 Farhana Irfan Madhani et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This paper is a report of an integrative review conducted to assess the methodological and ethical strategies used to protect participants and researchers in conducting violence against women (VAW) studies in Pakistan. The measurement of the prevalence of violence against women in Pakistan is challenging for researchers given the cultural norms and the traditional role of women. Lack of methodological rigor in addressing the concerns can result in underreporting of violence, create physical and emotional risk for the participants, interviewers, and researchers, and impose threats to internal and external validity of VAW studies. Using Whittemore and Knafl’s process for conducting an integrative review, 11 studies published between 1999 and 2012, reporting on prevalence, experiences, and factors associated with violence in a marital relationship were analyzed. Overall, studies reveal an underreporting of exposure to violence and threats to women and interviewers’ safety in the conduct of such studies, both of which present threats to study rigor. The utilization of WHO ethical and safety recommendations to guide VAW studies in this context should be considered.