Table of Contents
Advances in Optical Technologies
Volume 2011, Article ID 609643, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/609643
Review Article

Collective Micro-Optics Technologies for VCSEL Photonic Integration

1LAAS, CNRS, 7 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31077 Toulouse, France
2Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, INP, ISAE, LAAS, F-31077 Toulouse, France

Received 1 June 2011; Accepted 13 September 2011

Academic Editor: Rainer Michalzik

Copyright © 2011 V. Bardinal et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We describe the main recent technological approaches that associate micro-optical elements to VCSELs in order to control their output beam and to improve their photonic integration. These approaches imply either a hybrid assembly or a direct integration technique. They are compared with regards to their tolerance to alignment errors and to their ease of implementation onto arrays of devices at a wafer level. In particular, we detail the integration techniques we have developed for self-aligned polymer microlens fabrication for beam collimation and short distance beam focusing. Finally, designs to achieve active micro-optics or to exploit novel nanophotonic effects are discussed.