Table of Contents
Advances in Optical Technologies
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 689519, 17 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/689519
Review Article

Numerical Self-Consistent Analysis of VCSELs

1Institute of Physics, Technical University of Lodz, Wolczanska 219, 93-005 Lodz, Poland
2Department of Applied Physics and Photonics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
3Institute of Solid State Physics, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Boulevard, 1784 Sofia, Bulgaria

Received 1 July 2011; Accepted 20 February 2012

Academic Editor: Kent D. Choquette

Copyright © 2012 Robert Sarzała et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) yield single-longitudinal-mode operation, low-divergence circular output beam, and low threshold current. This paper gives an overview on theoretical, self-consistent modelling of physical phenomena occurring in a VCSEL. The model has been experimentally confirmed. We present versatile numerical methods for nitride, arsenide, and phosphide VCSELs emitting light at wavelengths varying from violet to near infrared. We also discuss different designs with respect to optical confinement: gain guidance using tunnel junctions and index guidance using oxide confinement or photonic crystal and we focus on the problem of single-transverse-mode operation.