Table of Contents
Advances in Optical Technologies
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 206325, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/206325
Research Article

Growth and Characterization of Benzimidazolium Salicylate: NLO Property from a Centrosymmetric Crystal

1Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600005, India
2Department of Physics, Aalim Muhammed Salegh College of Engineering, Avadi, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600055, India

Received 15 July 2015; Revised 16 September 2015; Accepted 16 September 2015

Academic Editor: Giancarlo C. Righini

Copyright © 2015 M. Amudha et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecule and Crystals, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1987.
  2. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
  3. J. Badan, R. Hierle, A. Perigand, and J. Zyss, Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Polymeric Materials, vol. 233 of edited by: Williams, American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, USA, 1993.
  4. C. Bosshard, M. Bösch, I. Liakatas, M. Jäger, and P. Günter, “Second-order nonlinear optical organic materials: recent developments,” in Nonlinear Optical Effects and Materials, vol. 72 of Springer Series in Optical Sciences, pp. 163–299, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. Chandramohan, R. Bharathikannan, J. Chandrasekaran, P. Maadeswaran, R. Renganathan, and V. Kandavelu, “Synthesis, crystal growth and characterization of a new organic NLO material: caffeinium picrate (CAFP)—a charge transfer molecular complex salt,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 310, no. 24, pp. 5409–5415, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Pandi, G. Peramaiyan, S. Sudhahar et al., “Studies on synthesis, growth, structural, thermal, linear and nonlinear optical properties of organic picolinium maleate single crystals,” Spectrochimica Acta—Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 98, pp. 7–13, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. K. E. Rieckhoff and W. L. Peticolas, “Optical second-harmonic generation in crystalline amino acids,” Science, vol. 147, no. 3658, pp. 610–611, 1965. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. W. Guo, F. Guo, C. Wei et al., “SHG from centrosymmetric supermolecular crystal,” Science in China Series B: Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 267–274, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  9. A. Criado, M. J. Diánez, S. Pérez-Garrido, I. M. L. Fernandes, M. Belsley, and E. De Matos Gomes, “1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium dihydrogenorthophosphate,” Acta Crystallographica, vol. 56, no. 7, pp. 888–889, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. J. Zaccaro, J. P. Salvastrini, A. Ibanez, P. Ney, and M. D. J. Fontana, “Electric-field frequency dependence of Pockels coefficients in 2-amino-5-nitropyridium dihydrogen phosphate organic-inorganic crystals,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 427–432, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Chandramohan, R. Bharathikannan, M. A. Kandhaswamy, J. Chandrasekaran, R. Renganathan, and V. Kandavelu, “Synthesis, spectral, thermal and NLO properties of N,N-dimethyl anilinium picrate,” Crystal Research and Technology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 173–178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Chandramohan, D. Gayathri, D. Velmurugan, K. Ravikumar, and M. A. Kandhaswamy, “1,3,7-Trimethylxanthenium 2,4,6-trinitrophenolate,” Acta Crystallographica Section E, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 2495–2496, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  13. S. Ueda, T. Fukunaga, and H. Ishida, “Benzimidazolium hydrogen phenyl­malonate,” Acta Crystallographica Section E, vol. 61, pp. o1845–o1847, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. T.-T. Pan, J.-G. Liu, and D.-J. Xu, “Benzimidazolium hydrogen nitroterephthalate,” Acta Crystallographica Section E: Structure Reports Online, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. o3996–o3997, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Obulichetty and D. Saravanabharathi, “Influence of molecular structure on the photoluminescence of 2-methyl benzimidazolium picrate: a new fluorescent material,” Spectrochimica Acta—Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 118, pp. 861–866, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. Walia, M. Hedaitullah, F. S. Naar, K. Iqbal, and H. S. Lamba, “Benzimidazole derivatives—an overview,” International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Chemistry, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 565–573, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  17. R. S. Mulliken, “Structures of complexes formed by halogen molecules with aromatic and with oxygenated solvents,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 600–608, 1950. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. M. Rajalakshmi, R. Indirajith, P. Ramasamy, and R. Gopalakrishnan, “Synthesis, growth and characterization of 1H-benzimidazolium hydrogen L-tartrate dihydrate single crystals,” Molecular Crystals and Liquid Crystals, vol. 548, no. 1, pp. 126–141, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. R. R. Babu, M. Sukumar, V. Vasudevan, M. Shakir, K. Ramamurthi, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Growth and properties of benzil doped benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystals,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1197–1198, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Mariappan, A. Kandasamy, M. Rathnakumari, and P. Sureshkumar, “Synthesis, growth and properties of a novel organic nonlinear optical material: benzimidazolium perchlorate,” Optik, vol. 124, no. 22, pp. 5707–5710, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. C. Andal and P. Murugakoothan, “Growth of urea salicylic acid (USA) crystal,” International Journal of ChemTech Research, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 1541–1543, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  22. M. Dhavamurthy, G. Peramaiyan, K. S. S. Babu, and R. Mohan, “Crystal growth, morphology, thermal and spectral studies of an organosulfur nonlinear optical bis(guanidinium) 5-sulfosalicylate (BG5SS) single crystals,” Applied Physics A, vol. 119, no. 1, pp. 155–161, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. K. Gayathri, P. Krishnan, P. R. Rajkumar, and G. Anbalagan, “Growth, optical, thermal and mechanical characterization of an organic crystal: brucinium 5-sulfosalicylate trihydrate,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 1589–1595, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Bhagavannarayana and S. K. Kushwaha, “Enhancement of SHG efficiency by urea doping in ZTS single crystals and its correlation with crystalline perfection as revealed by Kurtz powder and high-resolution X-ray diffraction methods,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 154–162, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. G. Bhagavannarayana, P. Rajesh, and P. Ramasamy, “Interesting growth features in potassium dihydrogen phosphate: unravelling the origin and dynamics of point defects in single crystals,” Journal of Applied Crystallography, vol. 43, pp. 1372–1376, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. N. Vijayan, R. Ramesh Babu, R. Gopalakrishnan, P. Ramasamy, and W. T. A. Harrison, “Growth and characterization of benzimidazole single crystals: a nonlinear optical material,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 262, no. 1–4, pp. 490–498, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. R. M. Silverstein and F. X. Webster, Spectrometric Identification of Organic Compounds, John Wiley & Sons, Québec, Canada, 6th edition, 1998.
  28. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikoyosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1999.
  29. K. Kirubavathi, K. Selvaraju, N. Vijayan, and S. Kumararaman, “Synthesis growth and characterization of L-Valinium Picrate a new nonlinear optical crystal,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 288–291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Rajasekar, M. Vimalan, N. Vijayan, and P. S. Joseph, “Growth and dielectric studies of benzimidazole: a novel organic NLO material,” Archives of Applied Science Research, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 1022–1027, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  31. D. D. O. Eya, A. J. Ekpunobi, and C. E. Okeke, “Influence of thermal annealing on the optical properties of tin oxide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition technique,” Academic Open Internet Journal, vol. 17, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  32. P. Rajesh and P. Ramasamy, “Growth of dl-malic acid-doped ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystal and its characterization,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 311, no. 13, pp. 3491–3497, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. R. R. Babu, M. Sukumar, V. Vasudevan, M. Shakir, K. Ramamurthi, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Growth and properties of benzil doped benzimidazole (BMZ) single crystals,” Materials Research Bulletin, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 1194–1198, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. A. Hiremath and A. Venkataraman, “Dielectric, electrical and infrared studies of γ-Fe2O3 prepared by combustion method,” Bulletin of Materials Science, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 391–396, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. U. Charoen-In, P. Ramasamy, and P. Manyum, “Comparative study on l-alaninium maleate single crystal grown by Sankaranarayanan–Ramasamy (SR) method and conventional slow evaporation solution technique,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 312, no. 16-17, pp. 2369–2375, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. B. Lal, K. K. Bamzai, P. N. Kotru, and B. M. Wanklyn, “Microhardness, fracture mechanism and dielectric behaviour of flux-grown GdFeO3 single crystals,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 85, no. 2-3, pp. 353–365, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. E. M. Onitsch, “Micro-hardness testing,” Mikroscopia, vol. 2, pp. 131–151, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  38. K. Mohana Priyadharshini and A. Chandramohan, “Synthesis, growth, crystal structure and characterization of an organic salt single crystal: diimidazolium dipicrate monohydrate,” The Experiment, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 1759–1774, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  39. W. Guo, F. Guo, C. Wei et al., “SHG from centrosymmetric supermolecular crystal,” Science in China Series B: Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 3, p. 276, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  40. M. Shakir, S. K. Kushwaha, K. K. Maurya, M. Arora, and G. Bhagavannarayana, “Growth and characterization of glycine picrate—remarkable second-harmonic generation in centrosymmetric crystal,” Journal of Crystal Growth, vol. 311, no. 15, pp. 3871–3875, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. M. Loganayaki, V. S. Shankar, P. Ramesh, M. Ponnuswamy, and P. Murugakoothan, “Growth and characterization of guanidinium trifluoroacetate—second harmonic generation from a centrosymmetric crystal,” Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 843–853, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. S. C. Abraham and J. M. Robertson, “The crystal structure of p-nitroaniline, NO2.C6H4.NH2,” Acta Crystallographica, vol. 1, pp. 252–259, 1948. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. J. Donhue and K. N. Trueblood, “The crystal structure of p-nitroaniline,” Acta Crystallographica, vol. 9, p. 960, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  44. G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton et al., “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature, vol. 375, no. 6530, pp. 385–388, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. W. Nie, “Optical nonlinearity: phenomena, applications, and materials,” Advanced Materials, vol. 5, no. 7-8, pp. 520–545, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar