Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Optical Technologies
Volume 2016 (2016), Article ID 8164308, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8164308
Review Article

Optical Network Technologies for Future Digital Cinema

1School of Engineering, London South Bank University, 103 Borough Road, London SE1 0AA, UK
2Department of Electrical Engineering, COMSATS, Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan

Received 9 May 2016; Revised 30 October 2016; Accepted 15 November 2016

Academic Editor: Giancarlo C. Righini

Copyright © 2016 Sajid Nazir and Mohammad Kaleem. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Villasenor, “Digital Cinema using Satellite CDN as Delivery and Transport Platform,” [White paper], http://www.globecommsystems.com/pdf/wp-digital-cinema-gsi-rev-2.pdf.
  2. J. Mateer, “Digital cinematography: evolution of craft or revolution in production?” Journal of Film and Video, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 3–14, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. T. Fujii, K. Shirakawa, D. Shirai, Y. Tonomura, and M. Kitamura, “Digital cinema over optical networks-status of super HD development,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC '11), and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, Los Angeles, Calif, USA, 2011.
  4. “Layered Compression Technologies for Digital Cinematography and Cross Media Conversion,” February 2007, http://www.worldscreen.org.
  5. T. Johnson, “New Video Codec to Ease Pressure on Global Networks,” January 2013, https://www.itu.int/net/pressoffice/press_releases/2013/01.aspx.
  6. “The European Digital Cinema Forum (EDCF),” http://www.edcf.net/.
  7. G. Silvestre, S. Monnet, D. Buffoni, and P. Sens, “Predicting popularity and adapting replication of internet videos for high-quality delivery,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Systems (ICPADS '13), pp. 412–419, IEEE, Seoul, Republic of Korea, December 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Chris, “Cinematography for the masses,” Variety, vol. 425, no. 12, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  9. S. D. Katz, “The new cinematography: a picture is worth a thousand views,” Millimeter-The Magazine of Motion Picture and Television Production, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  10. DCI Specification: Digital Cinema System Specification, “Version 1.2 with Errata as of 30 August 2012 Incorporated”.
  11. DCI Compliant Equipment, http://www.dcimovies.com/compliant_equipment/.
  12. Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE), https://www.smpte.org/.
  13. ISO standards for Cinematography, http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_ics/catalogue_ics_browse.htm?ICS1=37&ICS2=60&ICS3=99.
  14. T. Brune, A. Kochale, and J. P. Wittenburg, “IT leverage for media acquisition: new paradigms in the key area of digital cinematography and HD production workflows,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '08), pp. 1601–1602, Hannover, Germany, April 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. T. Yamaguchi, D. Shirai, and T. Fujii, “SHD digital cinema distribution over a global high-speed network: internet 2,” NTT Technical Review, vol. 1, no. 5, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  16. T. Fujii, K. Shirakawa, M. Nomura, and T. Yamaguchi, “Cinema-class digital content distribution via optical networks,” in Optical Networks and Technologies, IFIP TC6 / WG6.10 First Optical Networks & Technologies Conference (OpNeTec), October 18-20, 2004, Pisa, Italy, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  17. D. D. Sorte, M. Femminella, A. Grasselli, and G. Reali, “Network distribution of digital cinema contents,” in Proceedings of the 16th IST Mobile and Wireless Communications Summit, pp. 1–5, Budapest, Hungary, July 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Sakamoto, K. Minami, K. Shirakawa, T. Fujii, Y. Saito, and H. Yamane, “The ‘4K pure cinema’ joint digital cinema trial,” NTT Technical Review 7, July 2006. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. Simeonidou, D. K. Hunter, M. Ghandour, and R. Nejabati, “Optical network services for ultra high definition digital media distribution,” in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Broadband Communications, Networks, and Systems (BROADNETS '08), pp. 165–168, London, UK, September 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Jukan and J. Mambretti, “Evolution of optical networking toward rich digital media services,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. 855–871, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. O.-D. Ntofon, D. Simeonidou, and D. K. Hunter, “Cloud-based architecture for deploying ultra-high-definition media over intelligent optical networks,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Optical Networking Design and Modelling (ONDM '12), pp. 1–6, April 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. AT&T, NEC, and CORNING, Researchers Complete Another Record-Breaking Fiber Capacity Test, https://www.corning.com/media/worldwide/coc/documents/Fiber/32_Tbps_Joint_Release_ATT_NEC_CORNING_050909_FINAL.pdf.
  23. J. Mambretti, “Advanced software and global networks stream 4K 3D digital movies from Poland to the US,” https://www.evl.uic.edu/entry.php?id=1119.
  24. M. Rabbani and R. Joshi, “An overview of the JPEG 2000 still image compression standard,” Signal Processing: Image Communication, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 3–48, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. Shi, L. Liu, and C. Xu, “Comparison between JPEG2000 and H.264 for digital cinema,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME '08), pp. 725–728, Hannover, Germany, June 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Marpe, V. George, H. L. Cycon, and K. U. Barthel, “Performance evaluation of Motion-JPEG2000 in comparison with H.264/AVC operated in pure intra coding mode,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Wavelet Applications in Industrial Processing, vol. 5266 of 137, p. 129, Providence, RI, USA, October 2003.
  27. M. Ouaret, F. Dufauxa, and T. Ebrahimia, “On comparing JPEG2000 and Intraframe AVC,” in Proceedings of the SPIE, Applications of Digital Image Processing, vol. 6312, San Diego, Calif, USA, August 2006.
  28. Q. Cai, L. Song, G. Li, and N. Ling, “Lossy and lossless intra coding performance evaluation: HEVC, H.264/AVC, JPEG 2000 and JPEG LS,” in Proceedings of the 4th Asia-Pacific Signal and Information Processing Association Annual Summit and Conference (APSIPA ASC '12), Hollywood, Calif, USA, December 2012. View at Scopus
  29. G. J. Sullivan, J.-R. Ohm, W.-J. Han, and T. Wiegand, “Overview of the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 22, no. 12, pp. 1649–1668, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. A. Rambhia, “HEVC Cutting Through The Hype-A realistic evaluation of what HEVC means for your business: today, tomorrow and in 2020,” October 2014.
  31. J. M. Boyce, Y. Ye, J. Chen, and A. K. Ramasubramonian, “Overview of SHVC: scalable extensions of the high efficiency video coding standard,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 20–34, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Nazir, Z. Hossain, R. Secchi, M. Broadbent, A. Petlund, and G. Fairhurst, “Performance evaluation of congestion window validation for DASH transport,” in Proceedings of the Network and Operating System Support on Digital Audio and Video Workshop (NOSSDAV '14), ACM, Singapore, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  33. R. Hummel, “3-D Cinematography,” American Cinematographer, vol. 89, no. 4, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Nilsson, “Ultra high definition video formats and standardisation,” BT Media and Broadcast Research Paper, 2015. View at Google Scholar
  35. High Performance Digital Media Network (HPDMNet), http://www.hpdmnet.org.
  36. G. Serafino, F. Scotti, G. Berrettini, G. Contestabile, and A. Bogoni, “Regenerative optical buffer based on SOA-amplified recirculating loop,” IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 1715–1717, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Prigg, Laser Technology, January 2015, http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2912559/The-giant-screens-3D-without-glasses-Laser-technology-revolutionise-advertising-cinema.html.
  38. “Specifications for NEC Digital Cinema Laser Projector,” http://www.necdisplay.com/p/digital-cinema-projectors/nc1440l-a.
  39. X. Zhang, J.-J. He, N. Liu, and J. J. Dubowski, “Carrier-induced fast wavelength switching in tunable V-cavity laser with quantum well intermixed tuning section,” Optics Express, vol. 23, no. 20, pp. 26336–26341, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. Tzimpragos, C. Kachris, I. B. Djordjevic, M. Cvijetic, D. Soudris, and I. Tomkos, “A survey on FEC codes for 100 G and beyond optical networks,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 209–221, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. H. Lu, C. H. Foh, Y. Wen, and J. Cai, “Delay-optimized file retrieval under LT-based cloud storage,” IEEE Transactions on Cloud Computing, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. J. Sakaguchi, Y. Awaji, N. Wada et al., “109-Tb/s (7x97x172-Gb/s SDM/WDM/PDM) QPSK transmission through 16.8-km homogeneous multi-core fiber,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC '11), March 2011. View at Scopus
  43. K. Takeshima, T. Tsuritani, Y. Tsuchida et al., “51.1-Tbit/s MCF transmission over 2520 km using cladding-pumped seven-core EDFAs,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 761–767, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. S. Anthony, 8K UHDTV: how do you send a 48Gbps TV signal over terrestrial airwaves?, June 2012, http://www.extremetech.com/extreme/130238-8k-uhdtv-how-do-you-send-a-48gbps-tv-signal-over-terrestrial-airwaves.
  45. L. Alloatti, R. Palmer, S. Diebold et al., “100 GHz silicon-organic hybrid modulator,” Light: Science & Applications, vol. 3, article e173, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. T. J. Xia, G. A. Wellbrock, Y.-K. Huang et al., “Field experiment with mixed line-rate transmission (112-Gb/s, 450-Gb/s, and 1.15-Tb/s) over 3,560 km of installed fiber using filterless coherent receiver and EDFAs only,” in Proceedings of the Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (OFC/NFOEC '11), March 2011. View at Scopus
  47. M. Kaleem, X. Zhang, Y. Zhuang, J.-J. He, N. Liu, and J. J. Dubowski, “UV laser induced selective-area bandgap engineering for fabrication of InGaAsP/InP laser devices,” Optics & Laser Technology, vol. 51, pp. 36–42, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. SELFNET, https://5g-ppp.eu/selfnet/.
  49. V. López, B. de la Cruz, Ó. González de Dios et al., “Finding the target cost for sliceable bandwidth variable transponders,” Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 476–485, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. O. G. de Dios, R. Casellas, F. Paolucci et al., “Experimental demonstration of multi-vendor and Multi-domain elastic optical network with data and control interoperability over a pan-European Test-bed,” Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1610–1617, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. IDEALIST, http://www.ict-idealist.eu/index.php/project.