Table of Contents
Advances in Pharmaceutics
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 160208, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/160208
Research Article

Unresponsiveness of Experimental Canine Leishmaniosis to a New Amphotericin B Formulation

1Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avenida Puerta de Hierro s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2Departamento de Parasitología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Plaza Ramon y Cajal, 28040 Madrid, Spain
3Farmacia y Tecnologia Farmaceutica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Plaza Ramon y Cajal, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Bari, Valenzano, 70010 Bari, Italy

Received 10 September 2014; Accepted 7 December 2014

Academic Editor: Maria J. Morilla

Copyright © 2015 Leticia Hernández et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel free polyaggregated amphotericin B (FPA) formulation used to treat experimental canine leishmaniosis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum. Eight healthy beagles were intravenously challenged with promastigotes per mL of L. infantum. One year after infection, they received an intravenous dose of FPA (5 mg/kg) every 2 weeks three times. Dogs were assessed monthly for clinical signs, serology, and parasite detection during a follow-up period of 6 months. Transient adverse effects (i.e., hypotension, diarrhea, bodyweight loss, fever, and asthenia) were observed within 24–48 hours after treatment in 4 animals. In three dogs mean clinical signs scores were reduced. Antibody titers measured by immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) had significantly diminished at the end of the study, although according to bone marrow smears and cultures a high percentage of dogs tested positive for the parasite at 6 months posttreatment (PT6). Real-time quantitative PCR (rtQ-PCR) on blood, bone marrow, and urine samples revealed the presence of parasitic DNA in all animals at PT6, although blood loads of the parasite were reduced. These findings indicate that FPA at the dosing regimen used did not achieve clinical or parasitological cure in dogs experimentally infected with L. infantum.