Table of Contents
Advances in Pharmaceutics
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 704946, 12 pages
Review Article

A Comprehensive Review on Dry Eye Disease: Diagnosis, Medical Management, Recent Developments, and Future Challenges

1NCRD’S Sterling Institute of Pharmacy, Mumbai University, Nerul, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra 400706, India
2SVKM’s Dr. Bhanuben Nanavati College of Pharmacy, Mumbai University, Vile Parle (West), Mumbai, Maharashtra 400 056, India
3Pacific Academy of Higher Education and Research University, Udaipur, Rajasthan 313003, India
4School of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE, UK

Received 30 September 2014; Revised 23 December 2014; Accepted 28 December 2014

Academic Editor: Hidetaka Akita

Copyright © 2015 Suvarna P. Phadatare et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Dry eye syndrome (DES) or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) is a common disorder of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation and manifests with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. The present review from interpretation of the literature gives detailed information on the prevalence, definition, causes, diagnostic tests, and medical management of dry eye disease. A number of systems contribute to the physiological integrity of the ocular surface and disruption of system may or may not produce symptoms. Therefore accurate diagnosis of dry eyes with no or minimal disruption of physiological function is necessary. The paper also discusses different colloidal drug delivery systems and current challenges in the development of topical ophthalmic drug delivery systems for treatment of KCS. Due to the wide prevalence and number of factors involved, newer, more sensitive diagnostic techniques and novel therapeutic agents have been developed to provide ocular delivery systems with high therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review is to provide awareness among the patients, health care professionals, and researchers about diagnosis and treatment of KCS and recent developments and future challenges in management of dry eye disease.