Figure 16: Scanning transmission electron nanoimages of TM hypo-d-oxide/carbon support material and nanostructured Pt electrocatalyst nanoparticles: (i) High-resolution high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron micrograph or Z-contrast nanographs (left-hand order) and (ii) Bright-field nanoimages of somewhat higher resolution, but missing the smallest nanoparticles (right-hand order). Labels: (a) Composite simple basic Nb-oxide interactive (SMSI) supported electrocatalyst, {Pt (10 wt.%)/20 wt.% Nb2O5/C}; (b) Congenial altervalent supported electrocatalyst, {Pt (10 wt.%)/20 wt.% Nb2O5, TiO2/C}; (c) Composite interactive (SMSI) altervalent supported electrocatalyst of the same hypo-d-oxide structure as in (b), but of triple higher Pt weight percentage, {Pt (30 wt.%)/20 wt.% Nb2O5, TiO2/C}, and (d) congenial altervalent supported electrocatalyst as in (b), but based on mixed W-oxide and anatase titania interactive supported Pt clusters. Courtesy of F. Nan and Professor Gianluigi Botton (McMaster University) for nanoimages.