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Advances in Physical Chemistry
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 431962, 17 pages
Research Article

Positronium in a Liquid Phase: Formation, Bubble State and Chemical Reactions

1Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218, Russia
2D. Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia, Miusskaya Square 9, Moscow 125047, Russia
3Institut Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien, CNRS/IN2P3, BP 28, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex 2, France

Received 2 April 2012; Revised 1 June 2012; Accepted 4 June 2012

Academic Editor: Michael Deleuze

Copyright © 2012 Sergey V. Stepanov et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The present approach describes the fate since its injection into a liquid until its annihilation. Several stages of the evolution are discussed: (1) energy deposition and track structure of fast positrons: ionization slowing down, number of ion-electron pairs, typical sizes, thermalization, electrostatic interaction between and the constituents of its blob, and effect of local heating; (2) positronium formation in condensed media: the Ore model, quasifree Ps state, intratrack mechanism of Ps formation; (3) fast intratrack diffusion-controlled reactions: Ps oxidation and ortho-paraconversion by radiolytic products, reaction rate constants, and interpretation of the PAL spectra in water at different temperatures; (4) Ps bubble models. Inner structure of positronium (wave function, energy contributions, relationship between the pick-off annihilation rate and the bubble radius).