Table of Contents
Advances in Psychiatry
Volume 2014, Article ID 502685, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/502685
Research Article

Neuropsychological Profiles and Behavioral Ratings in ADHD Overlap Only in the Dimension of Syndrome Severity

1Institute of Psychology, Eötvös Loránd University, Izabella u. 46., Budapest 1064, Hungary
2Brain Imaging Centre, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Magyar Tudósok Körútja 2., Budapest 1117, Hungary
3Vadaskert Child Psychiatry Hospital, Hűvösvölgyi út 116., Budapest 1021, Hungary
4Institute of Psychology, Károli Gáspár University, Bécsi út 324., Budapest 1037, Hungary

Received 4 May 2014; Accepted 23 October 2014; Published 13 November 2014

Academic Editor: Xingguang Luo

Copyright © 2014 Ádám Takács et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Objectives. The aim of this study was to compare the cognitive neuropsychological and the behavioral rating profiles of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods. Forty-two children diagnosed with ADHD (  years, ) and 43 typically developing children ( years, ) participated. We measured symptom severity with behavioral rating scales, and we administered neuropsychological tasks to measure inhibitory performance, updating/working memory, and shifting ability. Results. On the basis of the three neuropsychological variables, the hierarchical cluster analytic method yielded a six-cluster structure. The clusters, according to the severity of the impairment, were labeled as follows: none or few symptoms, Moderate inhibition and mild shifting, moderate to severe shifting with moderate updating, moderate updating, severe updating with mild shifting, and severe updating with severe shifting. There were no systematic differences in inattention and hyperactive-impulsive behavior across the clusters. The comorbid learning disorder appeared more likely only in severe neuropsychological forms of ADHD. Conclusion. In sum, our results suggest that behavioral ratings and neuropsychological profiles converge only in the dimension of symptom severity and that atypicalities in executive functions may manifest in nonspecific everyday problems.