Table of Contents
Advances in Psychiatry
Volume 2014, Article ID 929434, 39 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/929434
Review Article

The Concept of Schizophrenia: From Unity to Diversity

Schizophrenia Research Group, Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim Faculty of Medicine, University of Heidelberg, J5, 68159 Mannheim, Germany

Received 4 May 2014; Accepted 9 July 2014; Published 15 September 2014

Academic Editor: Joseph M. Pierre

Copyright © 2014 Heinz Häfner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. E. Kraepelin, Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Aerzte, Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 4th edition, 1893, (German).
  2. E. Bleuler, “Dementia praecox oder Gruppe der Schizophrenien,” in Handbuch der Psychiatrie, G. Aschaffenburg, Ed., pp. 1–420, Deuticke, Leipzig, Germany, 1911, (German). View at Google Scholar
  3. M. T. Tsuang and S. V. Faraone, Schizophrenia, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005.
  4. D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Schizophrenia, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011.
  5. N. C. Andreasen, “Concept of schizophrenia: past, present, and future,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 3–8, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  6. R. J. Wyatt, R. C. Alexander, M. F. Egan, and D. G. Kirch, “Schizophrenia, just the facts. What do we know, how well do we know it?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 3–18, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. S. Keshavan, R. Tandon, N. N. Boutros, and H. A. Nasrallah, “Schizophrenia, “just the facts”: What we know in 2008. Part 3: neurobiology,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 106, no. 2-3, pp. 89–107, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. Tandon, M. S. Keshavan, and H. A. Nasrallah, “Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts”: what we know in 2008. Part 1: overview,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 100, no. 1-3, pp. 4–19, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Tandon, M. S. Keshavan, and H. A. Nasrallah, “Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts” what we know in 2008. 2. Epidemiology and etiology,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 102, no. 1–3, pp. 1–18, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. Tandon, H. A. Nasrallah, and M. S. Keshavan, “Schizophrenia, “just the facts” 4. Clinical features and conceptualization,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 110, no. 1–3, pp. 1–23, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. R. Tandon, H. A. Nasrallah, and M. S. Keshavan, “Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts” 5. Treatment and prevention past, present, and future,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 122, no. 1'3, pp. 1–23, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. S. Keshavan, H. A. Nasrallah, and R. Tandon, “Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts” 6: moving ahead with the schizophrenia concept: From the elephant to the mouse,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 127, no. 1-3, pp. 3–13, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. S. Keshavan, R. Tandon, and H. A. Nasrallah, “Renaming schizophrenia: keeping up with the facts,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 148, no. 1–3, pp. 1–2, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. A. Fava, “The intellectual crisis of psychiatric research,” Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, vol. 75, no. 4, pp. 202–208, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. R. Kendell and A. Jablensky, “Distinguishing between the validity and utility of psychiatric diagnoses,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 1, pp. 4–12, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. M. Maj, “Are psychiatrists an endangered species?” World Psychiatry, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–2, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Maj, “Mental disorders as "brain diseases" and Jaspers' legacy,” World Psychiatry, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Jablensky and F. Waters, “RDoC: a roadmap to pathogenesis?” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 43–44, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  19. J. Parnas, L. A. Sass, and D. Zahavi, “Rediscovering psychopathology: the epistemology and phenomenology of the psychiatric object,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 270–277, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. J. Parnas, “The RDoC program: psychiatry without psyche?” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, pp. 46–67, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. E. Kraepelin, “The German institute of psychiatric research,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 51, pp. 505–513, 1920. View at Google Scholar
  22. E. Kraepelin, “Die Erscheinungsformen des Irreseins,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 1–29, 1920 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. W. Maier, “Psychiatrie als Beruf—wie sieht die Zukunft aus? Leserbrief zum Beitrag von H. Häfner in Der Nervenarzt (2002) 73: 33–40,” Nervenarzt, vol. 73, pp. 96–99, 2002 (German). View at Google Scholar
  24. S. E. Hyman, “Can neuroscience be integrated into the DSM-V?” Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol. 8, no. 9, pp. 725–732, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. B. N. Cuthbert, “The RDoC framework: facilitating transition from ICE/DSM to dimensional approaches that integrate neuroscience and psychopathology,” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 28–35, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Maj, “Keeping an open attitude towards the RDoC project,” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, pp. 1–4, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  27. G. A. Fava, C. Rafanelli, and E. Tomba, “The clinical process in psychiatry: a clinimetric approach,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 177–184, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. A. Fava, “Road to nowhere,” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 49–50, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. L. E. DeLisi, “The concept of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: implications for understanding schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 312–321, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Kretschmer, Körperbau und Charakter, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1921, (German).
  31. A. Jablensky, “Boundaries of mental disorders,” Current Opinion in Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 653–658, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. A. Jablensky, “The diagnostic concept of schizophrenia: its history, evolution, and future prospects,” Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 271–287, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. E. Kraepelin, Psychiatrie. Ein Lehrbuch für Studierende und Ärzte, Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 6th edition, 1899, (German).
  34. N. Craddock and M. J. Owen, “The Kraepelinian dichotomy—going, going... but still not gone,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 92–95, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. Jaspers, Allgemeine Psychopathologie. Ein Leitfaden für Studierende, Ärzte und Psychologen, Julius Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1913 (German).
  36. G. E. Berríos, “Psychiatry and its objects,” Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 179–182, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. G. E. Berrios, “Jaspers and the first edition of Allgemeine Psychopathologie,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 202, p. 433, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  38. H. Häfner, “Karl Jaspers. 100 Jahre ‘Allgemeine Psychopathologie’,” Der Nervenarzt, vol. 84, no. 11, pp. 1281–1290, 2013 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. K. Jaspers, “Die phänomenologische Forschungsrichtung in der Psychopathologie,” Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 391–408, 1912 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. E. Berrios, “Phenomenology, psychopathology and Jaspers: a conceptual history.,” History of psychiatry, vol. 3, no. 11, pp. 303–327, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. W. Mayer-Gross, E. Slater, and M. Roth, Eds., Clinical Psychiatry, Baillière, Tindall & Cassell, London, UK, 1954.
  42. V. Roelcke and F. Schneider, “Psychiatrists under National Socialism. Biographies of perpetrators, Einführung zum Thema: Psychiater im Nationalsozialismus. Täterbiographien,” Der Nervenarzt, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 291–292, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. J. K. Wing, J. E. Cooper, and N. Sartorius, Measurement and Classification of Psychiatric Symptoms: An Instruction Manual for the PSE and CATEGO Program, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 1974.
  44. J. K. Wing, T. Babor, T. Brugha et al., “SCAN: schedules for clinical assessment in neuropsychiatry,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 589–593, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. K. Schneider, Clinical Psychopathology, translated by M. W. Hamilton, Grune & Stratton, New York, NY, USA, 1959.
  46. R. Warner and G. de Girolamo, Schizophrenia, Epidemiology of Mental Disorders and Psychological Problems, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1995.
  47. C. Arango and W. T. Carpenter, “The schizophrenia construct: symptomatic presentation,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 9–23, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  48. W. S. Fenton, L. R. Mosher, and S. M. Matthews, “Diagnosis of schizophrenia: a critical review of current diagnostic systems,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 452–476, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. A. Jablensky, N. Sartorius, G. Ernberg et al., “Schizophrenia: manifestations, incidence and course in different cultures. A World Health Organization ten-country study,” Psychological Medicine Monograph Supplement, vol. 20, pp. 1–97, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  50. W. T. Carpenter Jr. and J. S. Strauss, “Cross cultural evaluation of Schneider's first rank symptoms of schizophrenia: a report from the International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 131, no. 6, pp. 682–687, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. H. G. Pope Jr. and J. F. Lipinski Jr., “Diagnosis in schizophrenia and manic-depressive illness. A reassessment of the specificity of “schizophrenic” symptoms in the light of current research,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 811–828, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. A. Taylor and R. Abrams, “Manic-depressive illness and good prognosis schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 132, no. 7, pp. 741–742, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. J. Möbius, Abriss der Lehre von den Nervenkrankheiten, Abel, Leipzig, Germany, 1893, (German).
  54. R. E. Kendell and I. F. Brockington, “The identification of disease entities and the relationship between schizophrenic and affective psychoses,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 137, no. 4, pp. 324–331, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Frances, “RDoC is necessary, but very oversold,” World Psychiatry, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 47–49, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  56. U. Ettinger, I. Meyhöfer, M. Steffens, M. Wagner, and N. Koutsouleris, “Genetics, cognition, and neurobiology of schizotypal personality: a review of the overlap with schizophrenia,” Frontiers in Psychiatry, vol. 5, article 18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. World Health Organization, The ICD-10 Classification of Mental and Behavioural Disorders, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992.
  58. World Health Organization, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) Version for 2010, 2010, http://apps.who.int/classifications/icd10/browse/2010/en#/F20-F29.
  59. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2005.
  60. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, and W. an der Heiden, “Schizophrenie—eine einheitliche Krankheit?” Der Nervenarzt, vol. 84, no. 9, pp. 1093–1103, 2013 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  61. I. F. Brockington, R. E. Kendell, and J. P. Leff, “Definitions of schizophrenia: concordance and prediction of outcome,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 387–398, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. H. Sass, “The classification of schizophrenia in the different diagnostic systems,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, H. Häfner, W. F. Gattaz, and W. Janzarik, Eds., pp. 19–43, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  63. J. Endicott, J. Nee, J. Fleiss, J. Cohen, J. B. Williams, and R. Simon, “Diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia: reliabilities and agreement between systems,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 8, pp. 884–889, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. D. J. Castle, S. Wessely, and R. M. Murray, “Sex and schizophrenia: effects of diagnostic stringency, and associations with premorbid variables,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, pp. 658–664, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Kramer, “Cross-national study of diagnosis of the mental disorders: origin of the problem,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 10, pp. 1–11, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. L. Spitzer and J. L. Fleiss, “A reanalysis of the reliability of psychiatric diagnosis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 125, no. 10, pp. 341–347, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. A. W. Loranger, “The impact of DSM-III on diagnostic practice in a university hospital. A comparison of DSM-II and DSM-III in 10,914 patients,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 672–675, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. de Leon, “A post-DSM-III wake-up call to European psychiatry,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 129, pp. 76–77, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  69. J. Zubin, “Crosss-national study of diagnosis of the mental disorders: methodology and planning,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 10, pp. 12–20, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. B. J. Gurland, J. L. Fleiss, L. Sharpe, P. Roberts, J. E. Cooper, and R. E. Kendell, “Cross-national study of diagnosis of mental disorders: hospital diagnoses and hospital patients in New York and London,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 18–25, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. J. de Leon, “One hundred years of limited impact of Jaspers' General Psychopathology on US psychiatry,” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 202, no. 2, pp. 79–87, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  72. R. E. Kendell, J. E. Cooper, A. J. Gourlay, J. R. Copeland, L. Sharpe, and B. J. Gurland, “Diagnostic criteria of American and British psychiatrists,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J. E. Cooper, R. E. Kendell, B. J. Gurland, L. Sharpe, J. R. M. Copeland, and R. Simon, Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London, Maudsley Monograph no. 20, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1972.
  74. J. P. Feighner, E. Robins, S. B. Guze, R. A. Woodruff Jr., G. Winokur, and R. Munoz, “Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 57–63, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. R. L. Spitzer, N. C. Andreasen, and J. Endicott, “Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders in DSM-III,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 489–511, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. L. Spitzer, J. Endicott, and E. Robins, “Research diagnostic criteria: rationale and reliability,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 6, pp. 773–782, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. G. L. Klerman, “The evolution of a scientific nosology,” in Schizophrenia: Science and Practice, J. C. Shershow, Ed., pp. 99–121, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass, USA, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  78. R. K. Blashfield, “Feighner et al., invisible colleges, and the Matthew effect,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. H. S. Decker, “How Kraepelinian was Kraepelin? How Kraepelinian are the neo-Kraepelinians?—from Emil Kraepelin to DSM-III,” History of Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 337–360, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. N. C. Andreasen, “DSM and the death of phenomenology in America: an example of unintended consequences,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 108–112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. E. Robins and S. B. Guze, “Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 126, no. 7, pp. 983–987, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM–IIII), American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 3rd edition, 1980.
  83. N. C. Andreasen and M. Flaum, “Schizophrenia: the characteristic symptoms,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 27–50, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. G. E. Berrios and I. S. Marková, “Symptoms—historical perspective and effect on diagnosis,” in Psychosomatic Medicine, M. Blumenfield and J. J. Strain, Eds., pp. 27–38, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  85. S. N. Ghaemi, “Nosologomania: DSM & Karl Jaspers' critique of Kraepelin,” Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine, vol. 4, article 10, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. P. R. McHugh, “Rendering mental disorders intelligible: addressing psychiatry's urgent challenge,” in Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry II. Nosology: International Perspectives in Philosophy and Psychiatry, K. S. Kendler and J. Parnas, Eds., pp. 269–280, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  87. P. R. McHugh and P. R. Slavney, “Methods of reasoning in psychopathology: conflict and resolution,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 197–215, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. P. R. Slavney and P. R. McHugh, “Explanation and understanding,” in Psychiatric Polarities, P. R. Slavney and P. R. McHugh, Eds., pp. 29–44, The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  89. A. L. Stoll, M. Tohen, R. J. Baldessarini et al., “Shifts in diagnostic frequencies of schizophrenia and major affective disorders at six North American psychiatric hospitals, 1972–1988,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 150, no. 11, pp. 1668–1673, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. L. N. Robins, J. E. Helzer, J. L. Croughan, J. B. W. Williams, and R. L. Spitzer, NIMH Diagnostic Interview Schedule: Version III, National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, DC, USA, 1981.
  91. A. Y. Tien and W. W. Eaton, “Psychopathologic precursors and sociodemographic risk factors for the schizophrenia syndrome,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 37–46, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. J. R. M. Copeland, M. E. Dewey, and P. Saunders, “The epidemiology of dementia: GMS-AGECAT studies of prevalence and incidence, including studies in progress,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 240, no. 4-5, pp. 212–217, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. J. J. McGrath and R. M. Murray, “Environmental risk factors for schizophrenia,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 226–233, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  94. E. L. Messias, C. Chen, and W. W. Eaton, “Epidemiology of schizophrenia: review of findings and myths,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 323–338, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. W. W. Eaton, “Evidence for universitality and uniformity of schizophrenia around the world: assessment and implications,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, vol IV. Balance of the Century, H. W. F. Gattaz and H. Häfner, Eds., pp. 21–33, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  96. T. Helgason, “Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, supplement 173, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  97. C. Astrup, “The increase of mental disorders,” The National Case Register of Mental Disorder, Gaustad Hospital, Oslo, Norway, 1982.
  98. J. Krupinski and L. Alexander, “Patterns of psychiatric morbidity in Victoria, Australia, in relation to changes in diagnostic criteria 1848–1978,” Social Psychiatry, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 61–67, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. Häfner, “Epidemiology of schizophrenia,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, H. Häfner, W. F. Gattaz, and W. Janzarik, Eds., pp. 47–74, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  100. E. G. Torrey, Schizophrenia and Civilization, Aronson, London, UK, 1980.
  101. E. H. Hare, “Was insanity on the increase?” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 142, no. 5, pp. 439–455, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. G. Der, S. Gupta, and R. M. Murray, “Is schizophrenia disappearing?” The Lancet, vol. 335, no. 8688, pp. 513–516, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. G. Harrison, J. E. Cooper, and R. Gancarczyk, “Changes in the administrative incidence of schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, pp. 811–816, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. H. Häfner and W. F. Gattaz, “Is schizophrenia disappearing? (letter),” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 240, pp. 373–378, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  105. R. M. Murray, S. W. Lewis, and A. M. Reveley, “Towards an aetiological classification of schizophrenia,” The Lancet, vol. 1, no. 8436, pp. 1023–1026, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. R. M. Murray, “Neurodevelopmental schizophrenia: the rediscovery of dementia praecox,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 25, pp. 6–12, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. R. E. Kendell, D. E. Malcolm, and W. Adams, “The problem of detecting changes in the incidence of schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, pp. 212–218, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. R. E. Faris and W. Dunham, Mental Disorders in Urban Areas. An Ecological Study of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1939.
  109. H. W. Dunham, “Current status of ecological research in mental disorder,” Social Forces, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 321–326, 1947. View at Google Scholar
  110. H. W. Dunham, “Social class and schizophrenia,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 34, pp. 634–642, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. H. W. Dunham, Community and Schizophrenia. An Epidemiological Analysis, Wayne Sstate University Press, Detroit, Mich, USA, 1965.
  112. C. W. Schroeder, “Mental disorders in cities,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 40–48, 1942. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. E. A. Gardner and H. M. Babigian, “A longitudinal comparison of psychiatric service to selected socioeconomic areas of Monroe County, New York,” American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 818–828, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. G. D. Klee, E. Spiro, A. K. Bahn, and K. Gorwitz, “An ecological analysis of diagnosed mental illness in Baltimore,” in Psychiatric Epidemiology and Mental Health Planning, R. P. Monroe, G. D. Klee and, and E. B. Brody, Eds., pp. 107–148, American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  115. H. W. Dunham, “City core and suburban fringe: distribution pattern of mental illness,” in Changing Perspectives in Mental Illness, S. C. Plog and R. Edgerton, Eds., pp. 336–363, Holt, Rinehard and Winstin, New York, NY, USA, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  116. H. Häfner, H. Reimann, H. Immich, and H. Martini, “Inzidenz seelischer Erkrankungen in Mannheim 1965,” Social Psychiatry, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 126–135, 1969 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. S. Weyerer and H. Häfner, “The stability of the ecological distribution of the incidence of treated mental disorders in the city of Mannheim,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 57–62, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. M. Marcelis, F. Navarro-Mateu, R. Murray, J. P. Selten, and J. van Os, “Urbanization and psychosis: a study of 1942–1978 birth cohorts in The Netherlands,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 871–879, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  119. W. Löffler and H. Häfner, “Ecological pattern of first admitted schizophrenics in two German cities over 25 years,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 93–108, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. P. B. Mortensen, C. B. Pedersen, T. Westergaard et al., “Effects of family history and place and season of birth on the risk of schizophrenia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 340, no. 8, pp. 603–608, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. C. B. Pedersen and P. B. Mortensen, “Family history, place and season of birth as risk factors for schizophrenia in Denmark: a replication and reanalysis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, pp. 46–52, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. C. B. Pedersen and P. B. Mortensen, “Evidence of a dose-response relationship between urbanicity during upbringing and schizophrenia risk,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 11, pp. 1039–1046, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. C. B. Pedersen and P. B. Mortensen, “Are the cause(s) responsible for urban-rural differences in schizophrenia risk rooted in families or in individuals?” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 163, no. 11, pp. 971–978, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. J. B. Kirkbride, P. Fearon, C. Morgan et al., “Heterogeneity in incidence rates of schizophrenia and other psychotic syndromes: findings from the 3-center ÆSOP study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 250–258, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. L. Levy and L. Rowitz, “The spatial distribution of treated mental disorders in Chicago,” Social Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 1970. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. L. Levy and L. Rowitz, The Ecology of Mental Disorders in Chicago, Behavioral Publications, New York, NY, USA, 1973.
  127. J. A. Giggs and J. E. Cooper, “Ecological structure and the distribution of schizophrenia and affective psychoses in Nottingham,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 151, pp. 627–633, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. H. Häfner and H. Reimann, “Spatial distribution of mental disorders in Mannheim 1965,” in Psychiatric Epidemiology, E. H. Hare and J. K. Wing, Eds., pp. 341–354, Oxford University Press, London, UK, 1970. View at Google Scholar
  129. J. A. Clausen and M. L. Kohn, “The ecological approach in social psychiatry,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 60, pp. 140–149, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  130. J. A. Clausen and M. L. Kohn, “Social isolation and schizophrenia,” American Sociological Review, vol. 20, pp. 265–273, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  131. J. A. Clausen and M. L. Kohn, “Relation of schizophrenia to the social structure of a small city,” in Epidemiology of Mental Disorder, B. Pasamanick, Ed., pp. 69–86, AAAS Publisher, Washington, DC, USA, 1959. View at Google Scholar
  132. L. Stein, “‘Social class’ gradient in schizophrenia,” British Journal Of Preventive & Social Medicine, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 181–195, 1957. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. D. Klusmann and M. C. Angermeyer, “Urban ecology and psychiatric admission rates: results from a study in the city of Hamburg,” in From Social Class to Social Stress, M. C. Angermeyer and D. Klusmann, Eds., pp. 16–45, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  134. R. E. L. Faris, “Cultural isolation and the schizophrenic personality,” American Journal of Sociology, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 155–164, 1934. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  135. E. G. Jaco, “The social isolation hypothesis and schizophrenia,” American Sociological Review, vol. 19, pp. 567–577, 1954. View at Google Scholar
  136. A. Hollingshead and F. Redlich, Social Class and Mental Illness, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1958.
  137. E. H. Hare and G. K. Shore, Mental Health on a New Housing Estate, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1965.
  138. D. L. Gerard and L. G. Houston, “Family setting and the social ecology of schizophrenia,” The Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 1–4, pp. 90–101, 1953. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. R. Lapouse, M. A. Monk, and M. Terris, “Drift hypothesis and socioeconomic differentials in schizophrenia,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 46, pp. 978–986, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  140. B. P. Dohrenwend, I. Levav, P. E. Shrout et al., “Socioeconomic status and psychiatric disorders: the causation-selection issue,” Science, vol. 255, no. 5047, pp. 946–952, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. K. Dauncey, J. Giggs, K. Baker, and G. Harrison, “Schizophrenia in Nottingham: lifelong residential mobility of a cohort,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 163, pp. 613–619, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. Ö. Ödegård, “The incidence of psychoses in various occupations,” International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 2, pp. 85–104, 1956. View at Google Scholar
  143. Ö. Ödegård, “Hospitalized psychoses in Norway: time trends 1926–1965,” Social Psychiatry, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 53–58, 1971. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. W. W. Eaton, “Residence, social class, and schizophrenia,” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 289–299, 1974. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. E. F. Torrey, A. E. Bowler, and K. Clark, “Urban birth and residence as risk factors for psychoses: an analysis of 1880 data,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 169–176, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. J. Allardyce, J. Boydell, J. van Os et al., “Comparison of the incidence of schizophrenia in rural Dumfries and Galloway and urban Camberwell,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 179, pp. 335–339, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. P. B. Mortensen and C. B. Pedersen, “Urban/rural life as a risk factor?” in Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia, H. Häfner, Ed., pp. 123–131, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  148. W. W. Eaton, P. B. Mortensen, and M. Frydenberg, “Obstetric factors, urbanization and psychosis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 117–123, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. F. J. Oher, A. Demjaha, D. Jackson et al., “The effect of the environment on symptom dimensions in the first episode of psychosis: a multilevel study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 2419–2430, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  150. M. Hanssen, M. Bak, R. Bijl, W. Vollebergh, and J. van Os, “Outcome of self-reported psychotic experiences in the general population: a prospective study,” in Continuous Psychosis Phenotype: From Description to Prediction, M. Hanssen, Ed., South-Limburg Mental Health Research and Teaching Network PHD Series, pp. 95–107, M.S.S. Hanssen, Maastricht, The Netherlands, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  151. F. Jacobi, M. Höfler, J. Siegert et al., “Twelve-month prevalence, comorbidity and correlates of mental disorders in Germany: the Mental Health Module of the German Health Interview and Examinatiion Survey for Adults (DEGS1-MH),” International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  152. P. B. Mortensen, “Urban-Rural Differences in the Risk for Schizophrenia,” International Journal of Mental Health, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 101–110, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. R. Welz, “Räumliche Verteilung von Selbstmordversuchen in einer städtischen Region. Forschungsartefakte, Aggregierungseffekte und Clusterbildung,” in Raumbezogenheit sozialer Probleme (Beiträge zur sozialwissenschaftlichen Forschung, Bd. 35), L. A. Vaskovics, Ed., pp. 250–272, Westdeutscher, Opladen, Germany, 1982, (German). View at Google Scholar
  154. E. Silver, E. P. Mulvey, and J. W. Swanson, “Neighborhood structural characteristics and mental disorder: Faris and Dunham revisited,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 55, no. 8, pp. 1457–1470, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. Ö. Ödegård, Emigration and Insanity: A Study of Mental Disease among the Norwegianborn Population of Minnesota, Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica, supplement 4, 1932.
  156. J. Van Os, M. Hanssen, M. Bak, R. V. Bijl, and W. Vollebergh, “Do urbanicity and familial liability coparticipate in causing psychosis?” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 477–482, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. J. van Os, C. B. Pedersen, and P. B. Mortensen, “Confirmation of synergy between urbanicity and familial liability in the causation of psychosis,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 12, pp. 2312–2314, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. J. Spauwen, L. Krabbendam, R. Lieb, H. Wittchen, and J. van Os, “Evidence that the outcome of developmental expression of psychosis is worse for adolescents growing up in an urban environment,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 407–415, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. M. Weiser, J. van Os, A. Reichenberg et al., “Social and cognitive functioning, urbanicity and risk for schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 191, pp. 320–324, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. L. Krabbendam and J. van Os, “Schizophrenia and urbanicity: a major environmental influence—conditional on genetic risk,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 795–799, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. J. Van Os, R. J. Linscott, I. Myin-Germeys, P. Delespaul, and L. Krabbendam, “A systematic review and meta-analysis of the psychosis continuum: evidence for a psychosis proneness-persistence-impairment model of psychotic disorder,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 179–195, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. D. March, S. L. Hatch, C. Morgan et al., “Psychosis and place,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 84–100, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. F. Lederbogen, P. Kirsch, L. Haddad et al., “City living and urban upbringing affect neural social stress processing in humans,” Nature, vol. 474, no. 7352, pp. 498–501, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. M. Weiser, N. Werbeloff, T. Vishna et al., “Elaboration on immigration and risk for schizophrenia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, no. 8, pp. 1113–1119, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. C. Corcoran, M. Perrin, S. Harlap et al., “Incidence of schizophrenia among second-generation immigrants in the Jerusalem Perinatal Cohort,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 596–602, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  166. H. Häfner, G. Moschel, and M. Özek, “Psychische Störungen bei türkischen Gastarbeitern. Eine prospektive Studie zur Untersuchung der Reaktion auf Einwanderung und partielle Anpassung,” Nervenarzt, vol. 48, pp. 268–275, 1977 (German). View at Google Scholar
  167. T. J. Gaber, S. Bouyrakhen, B. Herpertz-Dahlmann et al., “Migration background and juvenile mental health: a descriptive retrospective analysis of diagnostic rates of psychiatric disorders in young people,” Global Health Action, vol. 6, Article ID 20187, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  168. R. Littlewood and M. Lipsedge, “Some social and phenomenological characteristics of psychotic immigrants,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 289–302, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. D. McGovern and R. V. Cope, “First psychiatric admission rates of first and second generation Afro Caribbeans,” Social Psychiatry, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 139–149, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  170. G. Harrison, D. Owens, A. Holton, D. Neilson, and D. Boot, “A prospective study of severe mental disorder in Afro-Caribbean patients,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 643–657, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. D. Castle, S. Wessely, G. Der, and R. M. Murray, “The incidence of operationally defined schizophrenia in Camberwell, 1965–84,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, pp. 790–794, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. S. Wessely, D. Castle, G. Der, and R. Murray, “Schizophrenia and Afro-Caribbeans. A case-control study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, pp. 795–801, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. G. Harrison, J. J. Brewin, R. Cantwell et al., “The increased risk of psychosis in African-Caribbean migrants to the UK: a replication,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 18, p. 102, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  174. D. Bhugra, J. Leff, R. Mallett, G. Der, B. Corridan, and S. Rudge, “Incidence and outcome of schizophrenia in Whites, African-Caribbeans and Asians in London,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 791–798, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. W. Eaton and G. Harrison, “Ethnic disadvantage and schizophrenia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, Supplement, vol. 102, no. 407, pp. 38–43, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. P. Fearon, J. B. Kirkbride, C. Morgan et al., “Incidence of schizophrenia and other psychoses in ethnic minority groups: results from the MRC AESOP Study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 11, pp. 1541–1550, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. J. P. Selten, J. P. J. Slaets, and R. S. Kahn, “Schizophrenia in Surinamese and Dutch Antillean immigrants to The Netherlands: evidence of an increased incidence,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 807–811, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  178. J. P. Selten, N. Veen, W. Feller et al., “Incidence of psychotic disorders in immigrant groups to the Netherlands,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, pp. 367–372, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. W. Veling, J.-P. Selten, N. Veen, W. Laan, J. D. Blom, and H. W. Hoek, “Incidence of schizophrenia among ethnic minorities in the Netherlands: a four-year first-contact study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 86, no. 1–3, pp. 189–193, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  180. E. Cantor-Graae, C. B. Pedersen, T. F. McNeil, and P. B. Mortensen, “Migration as a risk factor for schizophrenia: a Danish population-based cohort study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 182, pp. 117–122, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. K. Zolkowska, E. Cantor-Graae, and T. F. McNeil, “Increased rates of psychosis among immigrants to Sweden: is migration a risk factor for psychosis?” Psychological Medicine, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 669–678, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. P. A. Sugarman and D. Craufurd, “Schizophrenia in the Afro-Caribbean community,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, pp. 474–480, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  183. J. W. Coid, J. B. Kirkbride, D. Barker et al., “Raised incidence rates of all psychoses among migrant groups: findings from the East london first episode psychosis study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 11, pp. 1250–1258, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  184. J. B. Kirkbride, D. Barker, F. Cowden et al., “Psychoses, ethnicity and socio-economic status,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 18–24, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. A. Hjern, S. Wicks, and C. Dalman, “Social adversity contributes to high morbidity in psychoses in immigrants—a national cohort study in two generations of Swedish residents,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1025–1033, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  186. T. S. Leão, J. Sundquist, G. Frank, L. Johansson, S. Johansson, and K. Sundquist, “Incidence of schizophrenia or other psychoses in first- and second-generation immigrants: a national cohort study,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 27–33, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  187. F. W. Hickling and P. Rodgers-Johnson, “The incidence of first contact schizophrenia in Jamaica,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, pp. 193–196, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  188. G. E. Mahy, R. Mallett, J. Leff, and D. Bhugra, “First-contact incidence rate of schizophrenia on Barbados,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 175, pp. 28–33, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  189. D. Bhugra, M. Hilwig, B. Hossein et al., “First-contact incidence rates of schizophrenia in Trinidad and one-year follow-up,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 587–592, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  190. J. Selten, E. Cantor-Graae, J. Slaets, and R. S. Kahn, “Ødegaard's selection hypothesis revisited: schizophrenia in Surinamese immigrants to the Netherlands,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 4, pp. 669–671, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  191. J. Allardyce, H. Gilmour, J. Atkinson, T. Rapson, J. Bishop, and R. G. McCreadie, “Social fragmentation, deprivation and urbanicity: relation to first-admission rates for psychoses,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 187, pp. 401–406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  192. J. Boydell, J. van Os, K. McKenzie et al., “Incidence of schizophrenia in ethnic minorities in London: ecological study into interactions with environment,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 323, no. 7325, pp. 1336–1338, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  193. E. Cantor-Graae and J. Selten, “Schizophrenia and migration: a meta-analysis and review,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  194. W. Veling, J. Selten, J. P. Mackenbach, and H. W. Hoek, “Symptoms at first contact for psychotic disorder: comparison between native Dutch and ethnic minorities,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 95, no. 1–3, pp. 30–38, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  195. W. Veling, J. Selten, E. Susser, W. Laan, J. P. Mackenbach, and H. W. Hoek, “Discrimination and the incidence of psychotic disorders among ethnic minorities in The Netherlands,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 761–768, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  196. W. Veling, E. Susser, J. van Os, J. P. Mackenbach, J. Selten, and H. W. Hoek, “Ethnic density of neighborhoods and incidence of psychotic disorders among immigrants,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 66–73, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  197. J. B. Kirkbride, C. Morgan, P. Fearon, P. Dazzan, R. M. Murray, and P. B. Jones, “Neighbourhood-level effects on psychoses: Re-examining the role of context,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1413–1425, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  198. E. Essen-Möller, “Untersuchungen über die Fruchtbarkeit gewisser Gruppen von Geisteskranken,” Acta Psychiatrica et Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 8, 1935 (German). View at Google Scholar
  199. Ö. Ödegård, “Fertility of psychiatric first admissions in Norway 1936–1975,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 212–220, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  200. F. Haverkamp, P. Propping, and T. Hilger, “Is there an increase of reproductive rates in schizophrenics? I. Critical review of the literature,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 232, no. 5, pp. 439–450, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  201. T. Hilger, P. Propping, and F. Haverkamp, “Is there an increase of reproductive rates in schizophrenics? III. An investigation in Nordbaden (SW Germany): results and discussion,” Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 177–186, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  202. P. Propping, T. Hilger, and F. Haverkamp, “Is there an increase of reproductive rates in schizophrenics? II. An investigation in Nordbaden (SW Germany): methods and description of the patient sample,” Archiv fur Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, vol. 233, no. 3, pp. 167–175, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  203. L. Fananas and J. Bertranpetit, “Reproductive rates in families of schizophrenic patients in a case-control study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 91, no. 3, pp. 202–204, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  204. J. J. McGrath, J. Hearle, L. Jenner, K. Plant, A. Drummond, and J. M. Barkla, “The fertility and fecundity of patients with psychoses,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 99, no. 6, pp. 441–446, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  205. V. L. Nimgaonkar, S. E. Ward, H. Agarde, N. Weston, and R. Ganguli, “Fertility in schizophrenia: results from a contemporary US cohort,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 95, no. 5, pp. 364–369, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  206. J. Haukka, J. Suvisaari, and J. Lönnqvist, “Fertility of patients with schizophrenia, their siblings, and the general population: a cohort study from 1950 to 1959 in Finland,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 3, pp. 460–463, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  207. J. H. MacCabe, I. Koupil, and D. A. Leon, “Lifetime reproductive output over two generations in patients with psychosis and their unaffected siblings: the Uppsala 1915–1929 Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 1667–1676, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  208. D. Ropeter, Fertilitätsraten schizophren Erkrankter—Trends über 5 Jahrzehnte und Versuche ihrer Erklärung (Doctoral thesis), Faculty of Clinical Medicine Mannheim, Ruprecht Karls University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany, 2006, (German).
  209. A. C. Svensson, P. Lichtenstein, S. Sandin, and C. M. Hultman, “Fertility of first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a three generation perspective,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 91, no. 1–3, pp. 238–245, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  210. B. Xu, J. L. Roos, P. Dexheimer et al., “Exome sequencing supports a de novo mutational paradigm for schizophrenia,” Nature Genetics, vol. 43, no. 9, pp. 864–868, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  211. J. L. Waddington and H. A. Youssef, “Familial-genetic and reproductive epidemiology of schizophrenia in rural Ireland: age at onset, familial morbid risk and parental fertility,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 93, no. 1, pp. 62–68, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  212. M. Avila, G. Thaker, and H. Adami, “Genetic epidemiology and schizophrenia: a study of reproductive fitness,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 47, no. 2-3, pp. 233–241, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  213. A. Jablensky, J. B. Kirkbride, and P. B. Jones, “Schizophrenia: the epidemiological horizon,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 185–225, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  214. H. Stefansson, R. A. Ophoff, S. Steinberg et al., “Common variants conferring risk of schizophrenia,” Nature, vol. 460, pp. 744–747, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  215. J. R. Geddes and S. M. Lawrie, “Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, pp. 786–793, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  216. C. M. Hultman, A. Öhman, S. Cnattingius, I. M. Wieselgren, and L. H. Lindstrom, “Prenatal and neonatal risk factors for schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 170, pp. 128–133, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  217. M. Cannon, P. B. Jones, and R. M. Murray, “Obstetric complications and schizophrenia: historical and meta-analytic review,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 7, pp. 1080–1092, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  218. P. Rantakallio, P. Jones, J. Moring, and L. von Wendt, “Association between central nervous system infections during childhood and adult onset schizophrenia and other psychoses: a 28-year follow-up,” International Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 837–843, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  219. W. F. Gattaz, A. L. Abrahao, and R. Foccacia, “Childhood meningitis and adult schizophrenia,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, W. F. Gattaz and H. Häfner, Eds., pp. 26–31, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  220. A. L. Abrahao, R. Focaccia, and W. F. Gattaz, “Childhood meningitis increases the risk for adult schizophrenia,” World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, vol. 6, supplement 2, pp. 44–48, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  221. G. Harrison, C. Glazebrook, J. Brewin et al., “Increased incidence of psychotic disorders in migrants from the Caribbean to the United Kingdom,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 799–806, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  222. E. Kringlen, Heredity and Environment in the Functional Psychoses: An Epidemiological-Clinical Study, University Press, Oslo, Norway, 1967, reprinted by Heinemann, London, UK, 1968.
  223. E. Kringlen, “Twins: still our best method,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 429–433, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  224. I. I. Gottesman and J. Shields, Schizophrenia: The Epigenetic Puzzle, Sage, New York, NY, USA, 1982.
  225. P. McGuffin, A. E. Farmer, I. I. Gottesman, R. M. Murray, and A. M. Reveley, “Twin concordance for operationally defined schizophrenia. Confirmation of familiality and heritability,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 541–545, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  226. A. E. Farmer, P. McGuffin, and I. I. Gottesman, “Twin concordance for DSM-III schizophrenia: scrutinizing the validity of the definition,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 634–641, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  227. T. D. Cannon, J. Kaprio, J. Lönnqvist, M. Huttunen, and M. Koskenvuo, “The genetic epidemiology of schizophrenia in a Finnish twin cohort: a population-based modeling study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 67–74, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  228. S. Onstad, I. Skre, S. Torgersen, and E. Kringlen, “Twin concordance for DSM-III-R schizophrenia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 83, no. 5, pp. 395–401, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  229. A. G. Cardno and I. I. Gottesman, “Twin studies of schizophrenia: from bow-and-arrow concordances to STAR WARS Mx and functional genomics,” American Journal of Medical Genetics, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 12–17, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  230. W. Coryell and M. Zimmerman, “The heritability of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. A family study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 323–327, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  231. E. S. Gershon, L. E. DeLisi, J. Hamovit et al., “A controlled family study of chronic psychoses. Schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 328–336, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  232. W. Maier, D. Lichtermann, J. Minges et al., “Continuity and discontinuity of affective disorders and schizophrenia: results of a controlled family study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 871–883, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  233. J. Parnas, T. D. Cannon, B. Jacobsen, H. Schulsinger, F. Schulsinger, and S. A. Mednick, “Lifetime DSM-III-R diagnostic outcomes in the offspring of schizophrenic mothers: results from the Copenhagen high-risk study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 707–714, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  234. P. F. Sullivan, K. S. Kendler, and M. C. Neale, “Schizophrenia as a complex trait: evidence from a meta-analysis of twin studies,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 12, pp. 1187–1192, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  235. I. I. Gottesman, Schizophrenia Genesis: The Origins of Madness, W. H. Freeman, New York, NY, USA, 1991.
  236. B. Riley and K. S. Kendler, “Classical genetic studies of schizophrenia,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 245–268, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  237. P. Tienari, L. C. Wynne, K. Läksy et al., “Genetic boundaries of the schizophrenia spectrum: evidence from the Finnish adoptive family study of schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 9, pp. 1587–1594, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  238. C. Wynne, P. Tienari, P. Nieminen et al., “I. Genotype-environment interaction in the schizophrenia spectrum: genetic liability and global family ratings in the Finnish adoption study,” Family Process, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 419–434, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  239. H. Wickham, C. Walsh, P. Asherson et al., “Familiality of clinical characteristics in schizophrenia,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 325–329, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  240. W. Maier, J. Hallmayer, J. Minges, and D. Lichtermann, “Morbid risks in relatives of affective, schizoaffective and schizophrenic patients. Results of a family study,” in Affective and Schizoaffective Disorders. Similarities and Differences, A. Marneros and M. T. Tsuang, Eds., pp. 201–207, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  241. J. X. van Snellenberg and T. de Candia, “Meta-analytic evidence for familial coaggregation of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 748–755, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  242. M. Baron and N. Risch, “The spectrum concept of schizophrenia: evidence for a genetic-environmental continuum,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 257–267, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  243. S. Ripke, C. O'Dushlaine, K. Chambert et al., “Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia,” Nature Genetics, vol. 45, pp. 1150–1159, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  244. Schizophrenia Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, “Biological insights from 108 schizophrenia-associated genetic loci,” Nature, vol. 511, no. 7510, pp. 421–427, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  245. I. I. Gottesman and T. D. Gould, “The endophenotype concept in psychiatry: etymology and strategic intentions,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 636–645, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  246. C. Esslinger, H. Walter, P. Kirsch et al., “Neural mechanisms of a genome-wide supported psychosis variant,” Science, vol. 324, no. 5927, p. 605, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  247. J. L. Hess and S. J. Glatt, “How might ZNF804A variants influence risk for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder? A literature review, synthesis, and bioinformatic analysis,” The American Journal of Medical Genetics B: Neuropsychiatric Genetics, vol. 165, no. 1, pp. 28–40, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  248. International Schizophrenia Consortium, S. M. Purcell, N. R. Wray et al., “Common polygenic variation contributes to risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder,” Nature, vol. 460, pp. 748–752, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  249. J. Yang, S. H. Lee, M. E. Goddard, and P. M. Visscher, “GCTA: a tool for genome-wide complex trait analysis,” The American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 76–82, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  250. S. H. Lee, T. R. DeCandia, S. Ripke et al., “Estimating the proportion of variation in susceptibility to Schizophrenia captured by common SNPs,” Nature Genetics, vol. 44, pp. 247–250, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  251. Cross-Disorder Group of the Psychiatric Genomics, S. H. Lee, S. Ripke et al., “Genetic relationship between five psychiatric disorders estimated from genome-wide SNPs,” Nature Genetics, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 984–994, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  252. J. Frank, M. Lang, S. H. Witt et al., “Identification of increased genetic risk scores for schizophrenia in treatment-resistant patients,” Molecular Psychiatry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  253. T. Lencz, E. Knowles, and G. Davies, “Molecular genetic evidence for overlap between general cognitive ability and risk for schizophrenia: a report from the Cognitive Genomics consortium (COGENT),” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 19, pp. 168–174, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  254. A. Hoischen, N. Krumm, and E. E. Eichler, “Priorization of neurodevelopmental disease genes by discovery of new mutations,” Nature Neuroscience, vol. 17, pp. 764–772, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  255. J. P. Szatkiewicz, C. O'Dushlaine, G. Chen et al., “Copy number variation in schizophrenia in Sweden,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 19, pp. 762–773, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  256. J. L. Doherty and M. J. Owen, “Genomic insights into the overlap between psychiatric disorders: implications for research and clinical practice,” Genome Medicine, vol. 6, pp. 29–42, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  257. H. Stefansson, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, S. Steinberg et al., “CNVs conferring risk of autism or schizophrenia affect cognition in controls,” Nature, vol. 505, no. 7483, pp. 361–366, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  258. T. F. McNeil, “Perinatal risk factors and schizophrenia: selective review and methodological concerns,” Epidemiologic Reviews, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 107–112, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  259. J. R. Geddes, H. Verdoux, N. Takei et al., “Schizophrenia and complications of pregnancy and labor: an individual patient data meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 413–423, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  260. C. McDonald and R. M. Murray, “Early and late environmental risk factors for schizophrenia,” Brain Research Reviews, vol. 31, no. 2-3, pp. 130–137, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  261. T. D. Cannon, I. M. Rosso, J. M. Hollister, C. E. Bearden, L. E. Sanchez, and T. Hadley, “A prospective cohort study of genetic and perinatal influences in the etiology of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 351–366, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  262. P. B. Jones, P. Rantakallio, A. Hartikainen, M. Isohanni, and P. Sipilä, “Schizophrenia as a long-term outcome of pregnancy, delivery, and perinatal complications: a 28-year follow-up of the 1966 North Finland general population birth cohort,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 355–364, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  263. M. Isohanni, E. Lauronen, K. Moilanen et al., “Predictors of schizophrenia: evidence from the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort and other sources,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 187, no. 48, pp. s4–s7, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  264. A. Heck, M. Fastenrath, S. Ackermann et al., “Converging genetic and functional brain imaging evidence links neural excitability to working memory, psychiatric disease, and brain activity,” Neuron, vol. 81, no. 5, pp. 1203–1213, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  265. L. J. Seidman, S. L. Buka, J. M. Goldstein, and M. T. Tsuang, “Intellectual decline in schizophrenia: evidence from a prospective birth cohort 28 year follow-up study,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 225–242, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  266. S. A. Mednick and F. Schulsinger, “A longitudinal study of children with a high risk for schizophrenia: a preliminary report,” in Methods and Goal in Human Behavior Genetics, S. Vangenberg, Ed., pp. 255–296, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  267. S. A. Mednick and F. Schulsiger, “Some premorbid characteristics related to breakdown in children with schizophrenic mothers,” in Transmission of Schizophrenia, D. Rosenthal and S. S. Kety, Eds., pp. 267–291, Pergamon Press, New York, NY, USA, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  268. J. R. Asarnow, “Children at risk for schizophrenia: converging lines of evidence,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 613–631, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  269. L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, D. Rock, E. Squires-Wheeler, S. Roberts, and J. Yang, “Early life precursors of psychiatric outcomes in adulthood in subjects at risk for schizophrenia or affective disorders,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 239–256, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  270. L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, B. A. Cornblatt, D. Rock, S. Roberts, M. Bell, and A. West, “The New York high-risk project: anhedonia, attentional deviance, and psychopathology,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 19, no. 1, pp. 141–153, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  271. L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, E. Squires-Wheeler, U. H. Adamo, and A. S. Bassett, “The New York high-risk project,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 52, pp. 857–865, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  272. L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, U. H. Adamo, D. Rock et al., “The New York high-risk project,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 54, pp. 1096–1102, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  273. M. Dragovic, F. A. V. Waters, and A. Jablensky, “Estimating premorbid intelligence in schizophrenia patients: demographically based approach,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 814–818, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  274. V. A. Morgan, H. Leonard, J. Bourke, and A. Jablensky, “Intellectual disability co-occurring with schizophrenia and other psychiatric illness: population-based study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 5, pp. 364–372, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  275. B. Cornblatt, M. Obuchowski, S. Roberts, S. Pollack, and L. Erlenmeyer-Kimling, “Cognitive and behavioral precursors of schizophrenia,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 487–508, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  276. J. Marcus, J. Auerbach, L. Wilkinson, and C. M. Burack, “Infants at risk for schizophrenia: the Jerusalem Infant Development Study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 703–713, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  277. J. Marcus, S. L. Hans, E. Lewow, L. Wilkinson, and C. M. Burack, “Neurological findings in high-risk children: childhood assessment and 5-year followup,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 85–100, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  278. B. Fish, J. Marcus, S. L. Hans, J. G. Auerbach, and S. Perdue, “Infants at risk for schizophrenia: sequelae of a genetic neurointegrative defect. A review and replication analysis of pandysmaturation in the Jerusalem infant development study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 221–235, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  279. E. F. Walker, T. Savoie, and D. Davis, “Neuromotor precursors of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 441–451, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  280. E. E. Walker, J. Weinstein, K. Baum, and C. S. Neumann, “Antecedents of schizophrenia: Moderating effects of development and biological sex,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, H. Häfner and W. F. Gattaz, Eds., vol. 3, pp. 21–42, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  281. O. D. Howes, C. McDonald, M. Cannon, L. Arseneault, J. Boydell, and R. M. Murray, “Pathways to schizophrenia: the impact of environmental factors,” International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. S7–S13, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  282. P. H. Connell, Amphetamine Psychosis, Chapman & Hall, London, UK, 1958.
  283. K. Nakamura, C. Chen, Y. Sekine et al., “Association analysis of SOD2 variants with methamphetamine psychosis in Japanese and Taiwanese populations,” Human Genetics, vol. 120, no. 2, pp. 243–252, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  284. R. Näkki, J. Koistinaho, F. R. Sharp, and S. M. Sagar, “Cerebellar toxicity of phencyclidine,” Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 15, part 2, no. 3, pp. 2097–2108, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  285. S. Andreasson, P. Allebeck, A. Engstrom, and U. Rydberg, “Cannabis and schizophrenia. A longitudinal study of Swedish conscripts,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8574, pp. 1483–1486, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  286. P. Allebeck, C. Adamsson, and A. Engstrom, “Cannabis and schizophrenia: a longitudinal study of cases treated in Stockholm county,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 21–24, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  287. M. Hambrecht and H. Häfner, “Substance abuse and the onset of schizophrenia,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 40, no. 11, pp. 1155–1163, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  288. L. Arseneault, M. Cannon, R. Poulton, R. Murray, A. Caspi, and T. E. Moffitt, “Cannabis use in adolescence and risk for adult psychosis: longitudinal prospective study,” British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1212–1213, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  289. S. Zammit, P. Allebeck, S. Andreasson, I. Lundberg, and G. Lewis, “Self reported cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia in Swedish conscripts of 1969: historical cohort study,” The British Medical Journal, vol. 325, no. 7374, pp. 1199–1201, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  290. C. Henquet, R. Murray, D. Linszen, and J. van Os, “The environment and schizophrenia: the role of cannabis use,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 608–612, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  291. T. H. Moore, S. Zammit, A. Lingford-Hughes et al., “Cannabis use and risk of psychotic or affective mental health outcomes: a systematic review,” The Lancet, vol. 370, no. 9584, pp. 319–328, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  292. D. J. Foti, R. Kotov, L. T. Guey, and E. J. Bromet, “Cannabis use and the course of schizophrenia: 10-year follow-up after first hospitalization,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 167, no. 8, pp. 987–993, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  293. E. Manrique-Garcia, S. Zammit, C. Dalman, T. Hemmingsson, S. Andreasson, and P. Allebeck, “Prognosis of schizophrenia in persons with and without a history of cannabis use,” Psychological Medicine, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  294. P. Jones, B. Rodgers, R. Murray, and M. Marmot, “Child developmental risk factors for adult schizophrenia in the British 1946 birth cohort,” The Lancet, vol. 344, no. 8934, pp. 1398–1402, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  295. P. Jones and D. J. Done, “From birth to onset: a developmental perspective of schizophrenia in two national birth cohorts,” in Neurodevelopmental Models of Psychopathology, M. S. Keshavan and R. M. Murray, Eds., pp. 119–136, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  296. P. B. Jones and C. J. Tarrant, “Vorläufersymptome funktioneller Psychosen,” ZNS Journal, vol. 18, pp. 4–15, 1998 (German). View at Google Scholar
  297. D. J. Done, T. J. Crow, E. C. Johnstone, and A. Sacker, “Childhood antecedents of schizophrenia and affective illness: social adjustment at ages 7 and 11,” British Medical Journal, vol. 309, no. 6956, pp. 699–703, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  298. R. Poulton, A. Caspi, T. E. Moffitt, M. Cannon, R. Murray, and H. Harrington, “Children's self-reported psychotic symptoms and adult schizophreniform disorder: a 15-year longitudinal study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 1053–1058, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  299. M. Cannon, T. E. Moffitt, A. Caspi, R. M. Murray, H. Harrington, and R. Poulton, “Neuropsychological performance at the age of 13 years and adult schizophreniform disorder: prospective birth cohort study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 189, pp. 463–464, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  300. M. Isohanni, P. Rantakallio, P. Jones et al., “The predictors of schizophrenia in the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 29, p. 11, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  301. I. Isohanni, M.-R. Järvelin, P. Nieminen et al., “School performance as a predictor of psychiatric hospitalization in adult life. A 28-year follow-up in the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 967–974, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  302. M. Isohanni, P. B. Jones, S. Räsänen et al., “Early developmental milestones in adult schizophrenia. A 28-year follow-up of the North Finland birth cohort,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 52, pp. 1–19, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  303. P. B. Jones, R. M. Murray, and B. Rodgers, “Childhood risk factors for schizophrenia in a general population birth cohort at age 43 years,” in Neural Development in Schizophrenia: Theory and Practice, S. A. Mednick and J. M. Hollister, Eds., pp. 151–176, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  304. P. B. Jones, “Risk factors for schizophrenia in childhood and youth,” in Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophreni, H. Häfner, Ed., pp. 141–162, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  305. M. Solomon, E. Olsen, T. Niendam et al., “From lumping to splitting and back again: atypical social and language development in individuals with clinical-high-risk for psychosis, first episode schizophrenia, and autism spectrum disorders,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 146–151, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  306. A. Piton, J. Gauthier, F. F. Hamdan et al., “Systematic resequencing of X-chromosome synaptic genes in autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 867–880, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  307. R. Waltereit, T. Banaschewski, A. Meyer-Lindenberg, and L. Poustka, “Interaction of neurodevelopmental pathways and synaptic plasticity in mental retardation, autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia: Implications for psychiatry,” World Journal of Biological Psychiatry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  308. A. S. David, A. Malmberg, L. Brandt, P. Allebeck, and G. Lewis, “IQ and risk for schizophrenia: A population-based cohort study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1311–1323, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  309. A. Malmberg, G. Lewis, A. David, and P. Allebeck, “Premorbid adjustment and personality in people with schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, pp. 308–313, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  310. M. Davidson, A. Reichenberg, J. Rabinowitz, M. Weiser, Z. Kaplan, and M. Mark, “Behavioral and intellectual markers for schizophrenia in apparently healthy male adolescents,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 9, pp. 1328–1335, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  311. M. Weiser, “Association between cognitive and behavioral functioning, non-psychotic psychiatric diagnoses, and drug abuse in adolescence, with later hospitalization for schizophrenia,” in Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia, H. Häfner, Ed., pp. 163–175, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  312. I. Isohanni, M.-R. Järvelin, P. Jones, J. Jokelainen, and M. Isohanni, “Can excellent school performance be a precursor of schizophrenia? A 28-year follow-up in the Northern Finland 1966 birth cohort,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 17–26, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  313. J. Bertranpetit and L. Fananas, “Parental age in schizophrenia in a case-controlled study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, p. 574, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  314. D. Malaspina, S. Harlap, S. Fennig et al., “Advancing paternal age and the risk of schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 361–367, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  315. A. S. Brown, C. A. Schaefer, R. J. Wyatt et al., “Paternal age and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 9, pp. 1528–1533, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  316. A. Jung, H. C. Schuppe, and W. B. Schill, “Are children of older fathers at risk for genetic disorders?” Andrologia, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 191–199, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  317. M. C. Perrin, A. S. Brown, and D. Malaspina, “Aberrant epigenetic regulation could explain the relationship of paternal age to schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 6, pp. 1270–1273, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  318. J. J. McGrath, L. Petersen, E. Agerbo, O. Mors, P. B. Mortensen, and C. B. Pedersen, “A comprehensive assessment of parental age and psychiatric disorders,” The Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 301–309, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  319. A. E. Jaffe, W. W. Eaton, R. E. Straub, S. Marenco, and D. R. Weinberger, “Paternal age, de novo mutations and schizophrenia,” Molecular Psychiatry, vol. 19, pp. 274–283, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  320. B. Miller, E. Messias, J. Miettunen et al., “Meta-analysis of paternal age and schizophrenia risk in male versus female offspring,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 1039–1047, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  321. A. Kong, M. L. Frigge, G. Masson et al., “Rate of de novo mutations and the importance of father's age to disease risk,” Nature, vol. 488, no. 7412, pp. 471–475, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  322. L. Petersen, P. B. Mortensen, and C. B. Pedersen, “Paternal age at birth of first child and risk of schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 168, pp. 82–88, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  323. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, W. Löffler et al., “Onset and early course of schizophrenia,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia III, H. Häfner and W. F. Gattaz, Eds., pp. 43–66, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  324. N. C. Stefanis, M. Hanssen, N. K. Smirnis et al., “Evidence that three dimensions of psychosis have a distribution in the general population,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 347–358, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  325. J. van Os, H. Verdoux, S. Maurice-Tison et al., “Self-reported psychosis-like symptoms and the continuum of psychosis,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 459–463, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  326. H.-U. Wittchen, M. Höfler, R. Lieb, J. Spauwen, and J. van Os, “Depressive und psychotische Symptome in der Bevölkerung—Eine prospektiv-longitudinale Studie (EDSP) an 2.500 Jugendlichen und jungen Erwachsenen,” Nervenarzt, vol. 75, supplement 2, p. 87, 2004 (German). View at Google Scholar
  327. R. L. Loewy, J. K. Johnson, and T. D. Cannon, “Self-report of attenuated psychotic experiences in a college population,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 144–151, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  328. T. D. Cannon, “Prediction of psychosis through the prodromal syndrome,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 251–266, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  329. J. van Os, M. Hanssen, R. V. Bijl, and A. Ravelli, “Strauss (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 45, no. 1-2, pp. 11–20, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  330. J. Van Os, M. Hanssen, R. V. Bijl, and W. Vollebergh, “Prevalence of psychotic disorder and community level of psychotic symptoms: An urban-rural comparison,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 7, pp. 663–668, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  331. J. Spauwen, L. Krabbendam, R. Lieb, H. Wittchen, and J. van Os, “Sex differences in psychosis: normal or pathological?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 62, no. 1-2, pp. 45–49, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  332. M. Hanssen, M. Bak, R. Bijl, W. Vollebergh, and J. van Os, “The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, no. 2, pp. 181–191, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  333. J. Allardyce and J. van Os, “The natural history of the course and outcome of Schizophrenia,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 51–66, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  334. M. D. G. Dominguez, M. Wichers, R. Lieb, H. Wittchen, and J. van Os, “Evidence that onset of clinical psychosis is an outcome of progressively more persistent subclinical psychotic experiences: an 8-year cohort study,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 84–93, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  335. M. S. S. Hanssen, M. Bak, R. Bijl, W. Vollebergh, and J. Os, “Is prediction of psychosis in the general population feasible?” European Psychiatry, vol. 17, supplement 1, p. 74, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  336. N. Haroun, L. Dunn, A. Haroun, and K. S. Cadenhead, “Risk and protection in prodromal schizophrenia: ethical implications for clinical practice and future research,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 166–178, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  337. T. D. Cannon, K. Cadenhead, B. Cornblatt et al., “Prediction of psychosis in youth at high clinical risk: a multisite longitudinal study in North America,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 28–37, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  338. J. Lyne, L. Renwick, K. Madigan et al., “Do psychosis prodrome onset negative symptoms predict first presentation negative symptoms?” European Psychiatry, vol. 29, pp. 153–159, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  339. I. van Rossum, M. Dominguez, R. Lieb, H. Wittchen, and J. van Os, “Affective dysregulation and reality distortion: a 10-year prospective study of their association and clinical relevance,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 561–571, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  340. L. Krabbendam, I. Myin-Germeys, M. Hanssen et al., “Development of depressed mood predicts onset of psychotic disorder in individuals who report hallucinatory experiences,” The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 113–125, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  341. J. Klosterkötter, M. Hellmich, and F. Schultze-Lutter, “Ist die Diagnose schizophrener Störungen schon in der initialen Prodromalphase vor der psychotischen Erstmanifestation möglich?” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 68, Sonderheft 1, pp. S13–S21, 2000 (German). View at Google Scholar
  342. J. Klosterkötter, M. Hellmich, E. M. Steinmeyer, and F. Schultze-Lutter, “Diagnosing schizophrenia in the initial prodromal phase,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 2, pp. 158–164, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  343. G. Gross, G. Huber, J. Klosterkötter, and M. Linz, Bonner Skala für die Beurteilung von Basissymptomen (BSABS), Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1987 (German).
  344. J. Addington, K. S. Cadenhead, T. D. Cannon et al., “North American prodrome longitudinal study: a collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 665–672, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  345. P. Fusar-Poli, I. Bonoldi, A. R. Yung et al., “Predicting psychosis: Meta-analysis of transition outcomes in individuals at high clinical risk,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 3, pp. 220–229, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  346. A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips, H. P. Yuen, and P. D. McGorry, “Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high-risk group: psychopathology and clinical features,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 67, no. 2-3, pp. 131–142, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  347. P. Fusar-Poli, S. Borgwardt, A. Bechdolf et al., “The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review,” The Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 1, pp. 107–120, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  348. P. F. Liddle and T. R. E. Barnes, “Syndromes of chronic schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, pp. 558–561, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  349. P. F. Liddle, “Syndromes of schizophrenia on factor analysis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, p. 861, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  350. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, W. Löffler, W. an der Heiden, M. Hambrecht, and F. Schultze-Lutter, “Modeling the early course of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 325–340, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  351. A. Serretti and P. Olgiati, “Dimensions of major psychoses: a confirmatory factor analysis of six competing models,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 127, no. 1-2, pp. 101–109, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  352. M. Ruggeri, M. Koeter, A. Schene et al., “Factor solution of the BPRS-expanded version in schizophrenic outpatients living in five European countries,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 107–117, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  353. S. Z. Levine and J. Rabinowitz, “Revisiting the 5 dimensions of the positive and negative syndrome scale,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 27, no. 5, pp. 431–436, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  354. A. Picardi, C. Viroli, L. Tarsitani et al., “Heterogeneity and symptom structure of schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 198, no. 3, pp. 386–394, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  355. N. C. Andreasen, The Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), University of Iow, Iowa City, Iowa, USA, 1983.
  356. M. J. Cuesta and V. Peralta, “Psychopathological dimensions in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 473–482, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  357. W. P. Horan, A. M. Kring, and J. J. Blanchard, “Anhedonia in schizophrenia: a review of assessment strategies,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 259–273, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  358. G. Foussias and G. Remington, “Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: avolition and Occam's razor,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 359–369, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  359. S. M. Stahl and P. F. Buckley, “Negative symptoms of schizophrenia: a problem that will not go away,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 4–11, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  360. W. Löffler and H. Häfner, “Dimensionen der schizophrenen Symptomatik. Vergleichende Modellprüfung an einem Erstepisodensample,” Der Nervenarzt, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 416–429, 1999 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  361. S. R. Kay and S. Sevy, “Pyramidical model of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 537–545, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  362. A. Arora, A. Avasthi, and P. Kulhara, “Subsyndromes of chronic schizophrenia: a phenomenological study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 96, no. 3, pp. 225–229, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  363. L. Davidson and T. H. McGlashan, “The varied outcomes of schizophrenia,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 34–43, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  364. R. K. R. Salokangas, “Structure of schizophrenic symptomatology and its changes over time: prospective factor-analytical study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 32–39, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  365. L. White, P. D. Harvey, L. Opler, and J. P. Lindenmayer, “Empirical assessment of the factorial structure of clinical symptoms in schizophrenia. A multisite, multimodel evaluation of the factorial structure of the positive and negative syndrome scale. The PANSS Study Group,” Psychopathology, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 263–274, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  366. D. Freeman, “Cognitive and social processes in psychosis: recent developments,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 283–298, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  367. I. Myin-Germeys, M. Birchwood, and T. Kwapil, “From environment to therapy in psychosis: a real-world momentary assessment approach,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 244–247, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  368. J. J. Blanchard, M. Aghevli, A. Wilson, and M. Sargeant, “Developmental instability in social anhedonia: an examination of minor physical anomalies and clinical characteristics,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 118, no. 1–3, pp. 162–167, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  369. T. Laughren and R. Levin, “Food and drug administration commentary on methodological issues in negative symptom trials,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 255–256, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  370. P. D. Harvey, D. Koren, A. Reichenberg, and C. R. Bowie, “Negative symptoms and cognitive deficits: what is the nature of their relationship?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 250–258, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  371. K. H. Nuechterlein, M. F. Green, and R. S. Kern, “Schizophrenia as a cognitive disorder. Recent approaches to identifying its core cognitive components to aid treatment development,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 267–282, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  372. T. E. Goldberg, A. David, and J. M. Gold, “Neurocognitive impairments in schizophrenia: their character and role in symptom formation,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 142–162, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  373. R. S. E. Keefe, “Should cognitive impairment be included in the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia?” World Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 22–28, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  374. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  375. J. M. Kane and T. Lencz, “Cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: short-term and long-term,” World Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 13, pp. 29–30, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  376. A. Simning, Y. Conwell, and E. van Wijngaarden, “Cognitive impairment in public housing residents living in Western New York,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 477–485, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  377. S. R. Marder, D. G. Daniel, L. Alphs, A. G. Awad, and R. S. E. Keefe, “Methodological issues in negative symptom trials,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 250–254, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  378. J. M. Gold, “Cognitive deficits as treatment targets in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 21–28, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  379. S. E. Hyman and W. S. Fenton, “Medicine: what are the right targets for psychopharmacology?” Science, vol. 299, no. 5605, pp. 350–351, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  380. W. Wölwer, N. Frommann, S. Halfmann, A. Piaszek, M. Streit, and W. Gaebel, “Remediation of impairments in facial affect recognition in schizophrenia: Efficacy and specificity of a new training program,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 80, no. 2-3, pp. 295–303, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  381. D. N. Allen, G. P. Strauss, B. Donohue, and D. P. van Kammen, “Factor analytic support for social cognition as a separable cognitive domain in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 93, no. 1–3, pp. 325–333, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  382. M. F. Green, D. L. Penn, R. Bentall et al., “Social cognition in schizophrenia: an NIMH workshop on definitions, assessment, and research opportunities,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1211–1220, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  383. W. P. Horan, R. S. Kern, K. Shokat-Fadai, M. J. Sergi, J. K. Wynn, and M. F. Green, “Social cognitive skills training in schizophrenia: an initial efficacy study of stabilized outpatients,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 107, no. 1, pp. 47–54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  384. W. Gaebel, W. Wölwer, M. Riesbeck, and J. Zilasek, “The cross-sectional and longitudinal architecture of schizophrenia: significance for diagnosis and intervention,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 317–330, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  385. G. Fervaha, G. Foussias, O. Agid, and G. Remington, “Impact of primary negative symptoms on functional outcomes in schizophrenia,” European Psychiatry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  386. R. Bottlender, T. Sato, M. Jäger et al., “Does considering duration of negative symptoms increase their specificity for schizophrenia?” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 60, no. 2-3, pp. 321–322, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  387. A. K. Malla, R. M. G. Norman, J. Takhar et al., “Can patients at risk for persistent negative symptoms be identified during their first episode of psychosis?” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 192, no. 7, pp. 455–463, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  388. H. Häfner, W. an der Heiden, and K. Maurer, “Evidence for separate diseases? Stages of one disease or different combinations of symptom dimensions?” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 85–96, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  389. J. Mäkinen, J. Miettunen, M. Isohanni, and H. Koponen, “Negative symptoms in schizophrenia: a review,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 334–341, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  390. J. A. Husted, M. Beiser, and W. G. Iacono, “Negative symptoms and the early course of schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 215–222, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  391. W. an der Heiden, R. Könnecke, K. Maurer, D. Ropeter, and H. Häfner, “Depression in the long-term course of schizophrenia,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 174–184, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  392. W. an der Heiden and H. Häfner, “Course and outcome,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 104–141, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  393. M. F. Pogue-Geile and J. Zubin, “Negative symptomatology and schizophrenia: a conceptual and empirical review,” International Journal of Mental Health, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 3–45, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  394. J. M. Gold and M. F. Green, “Neurocognition in schizophrenia,” in Kaplan & Sadocks Comprehensive Textbook of Psychiatry, B. J. Sadock and V. A. Sadock, Eds., vol. 8, Baltimore, Md, USA, pp. 1436–1448, Kaplan Lippincott, Williams & Williams, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  395. G. P. Strauss, D. N. Allen, P. Miski, R. W. Buchanan, B. Kirkpatrick, and W. T. Carpenter, “Differential patterns of premorbid social and academic deterioration in deficit and nondeficit schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 135, no. 1–3, pp. 134–138, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  396. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, and W. an der Heiden, “ABC Schizophrenia study: an overview of results since 1996,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 48, no. 7, pp. 1021–1031, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  397. V. A. Morgan, J. J. McGrath, A. Jablensky et al., “Psychosis prevalence and physical, metabolic and cognitive co-morbidity: data from the second Australian national survey of psychosis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 23, pp. 1–14, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  398. J. J. Blanchard, A. M. Kring, W. P. Horan, and R. Gur, “Toward the next generation of negative symptom assessments: The collaboration to advance negative symptom assessment in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 291–299, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  399. L. Schwarz, T. P. Roskos, and G. T. Grossberg, “Answers to 7 questions about using neuropsychological testing in your practice,” Current Psychiatry, vol. 13, pp. 33–39, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  400. K. H. Nuechterlein, R. E. Asarnow, K. L. Subotnik et al., “Neurocognitive vulnerability factors for schizophrenia: convergence across genetic risk studies and longitudinal trait/state studies,” in Origins and Development of Schizophrenia: Advances in Experimental Psychopathology, M. F. Lenzenweger and R. H. Dworkin, Eds., pp. 299–327, American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  401. R. E. Gur, M. E. Calkins, R. C. Gur et al., “The consortium on the genetics of schizophrenia: neurocognitive endophenotypes,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 49–68, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  402. B. E. Snitz, A. W. MacDonald III, and C. S. Carter, “Cognitive deficits in unaffected first-degree relatives of schizophrenia patients: a meta-analytic review of putative endophenotypes,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 179–194, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  403. A. L. Hoff, M. Sakuma, M. Wieneke, R. Horon, M. Kushner, and L. E. DeLisi, “Longitudinal neuropsychological follow-up study of patients with first-episode schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, no. 9, pp. 1336–1341, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  404. A. Reichenberg, M. Weiser, M. A. Rapp et al., “Premorbid intra-individual variability in intellectual performance and risk for schizophrenia: a population-based study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 85, no. 1-3, pp. 49–57, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  405. A. Reichenberg, P. D. Harvey, C. R. Bowie et al., “Neuropsychological function and dysfunction in schizophrenia and psychotic affective disorders,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 1022–1029, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  406. M. Albus, W. Hubmann, J. Scherer et al., “A prospective 2-year follow-up study of neurocognitive functioning in patients with first-episode schizophrenia,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 252, no. 6, pp. 262–267, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  407. K. Maurer and H. Häfner, “Negativsymptomatik im Frühverlauf der Schizophrenie und im Verlauf über drei Jahre nach Ersthospitalisation,” in Befunderhebung in der Psychiatrie: Lebens-qualität, Negativsymptomatik und andere aktuelle Entwicklungen, H.-J. Möller, R. R. Engel, and P. Hoff, Eds., pp. 225–240, Springer, Vienna, Austria, 1996, (German). View at Google Scholar
  408. P. D. Harvey, E. Howanitz, M. Parrella et al., “Symptoms, cognitive functioning, and adaptive skills in geriatric patients with lifelong schizophrenia: a comparison across treatment sites,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 8, pp. 1080–1086, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  409. P. D. Harvey, M. Parrella, L. White, R. C. Mohs, M. Davidson, and K. L. Davis, “Convergence of cognitive and adaptive decline in late-life schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 77–84, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  410. D. M. Barch, J. Bustillo, W. Gaebel et al., “Logic and justification for dimensional assessment of symptoms and related clinical phenomena in psychosis: relevance to DSM-5,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 150, no. 1, pp. 20–25, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  411. W. T. Carpenter Jr., D. W. Heinrichs, and A. M. I. Wagman, “Deficit and nondeficit forms of schizophrenia: the concept,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 145, no. 5, pp. 578–583, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  412. A. Marneros, N. C. Andreasen, and M. T. Tsuang, Eds., Negative versus Positive Schizophrenia, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1991.
  413. W. T. Carpenter, R. W. Buchanan, B. Kirkpatrick, G. Thaker, and C. Tamminga, “Negative symptoms: a critique of current approaches,” in Negative Versus Positive Schizophrenia, A. Marneros, N. C. Andreasen, and M. T. Tsuang, Eds., pp. 126–133, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  414. B. Kirkpatrick and S. Galderisi, “Deficit schizophrenia: an update,” World Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 143–147, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  415. W. T. Carpenter Jr. and B. Kirkpatrick, “The heterogeneity of the long-term course of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 645–652, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  416. J. K. Wing and G. W. Brown, Institutionalism and Schizophrenia. A Comparative Study of Three Mental Hospitals 1960-1968, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1970.
  417. W. W. Eaton, R. Thara, B. Federman, B. Melton, and K. Y. Liang, “Structure and course of positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 127–134, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  418. E. S. Herbener and M. Harrow, “Longitudinal assessment of negative symptoms in schizophrenia/schizoaffective patients, other psychotic patients, and depressed patients,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 527–537, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  419. R. M. Murray and S. W. Lewis, “Is schizophrenia a neurodevelopmental disorder?” British Medical Journal, vol. 295, no. 6600, pp. 681–682, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  420. D. R. Weinberger, “Schizophrenia as a neurodevelopmental disorder,” in Schizophrenia, S. R. Hirsch and D. R. Weinberger, Eds., pp. 293–323, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  421. T. H. McGlashan and R. E. Hoffman, “Schizophrenia as a disorder of developmentally reduced synaptic connectivity,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 7, pp. 637–648, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  422. M. V. Zanetti, M. S. Schaufelberger, and J. A. S. Crippa, “Brain anatomical abnormalities in schizophrenia: neurodevelopmental origins and patterns of progression over time,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 113–148, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  423. M. K. Stachowiak, A. Kucinski, R. Curl et al., “Schizophrenia: a neurodevelopmental disorder—integrative genomic hypothesis and therapeutic implications from a transgenic mouse model,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 143, no. 2-3, pp. 367–376, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  424. T. J. Crow, “The two-syndrome concept: origins and current status,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 471–486, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  425. T. J. Crow, “Discussion: The genetics of psychosis is the genetics of the speciation of Homo sapiens,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, W. F. Gattaz and H. Häfner, Eds., vol. 5, pp. 297–312, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  426. S. R. Kay, A. Fiszbein, and L. A. Opler, “The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) for schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 261–276, 1987. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  427. B. Kirkpatrick, W. S. Fenton, W. T. Carpenter Jr., and S. R. Marder, “The NIMH-MATRICS consensus statement on negative symptoms,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 214–219, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  428. C. Forbes, J. J. Blanchard, M. Bennett, W. P. Horan, A. Kring, and R. Gur, “Initial development and preliminary validation of a new negative symptom measure: the Clinical Assessment Interview for Negative Symptoms (CAINS),” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 124, no. 1–3, pp. 36–42, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  429. S. R. Marder and B. Kirkpatrick, “Defining and measuring negative symptoms of schizophrenia in clinical trials,” European Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 737–743, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  430. W. S. Fenton and T. H. McGlashan, “Natural history of schizophrenia subtypes: II. Positive and negative symptoms and long-term course,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 11, pp. 978–986, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  431. T. E. Goldberg, T. M. Hyde, J. E. Kleinman, and D. R. Weinberger, “Course of schizophrenia: neuropsychological evidence for a static encephalopathy,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 797–804, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  432. T. W. Weickert and T. E. Goldberg, “Neuropsychologie der Schizophrenie,” in Psychiatrie der Gegenwart, H. Helmchen, F. Henn, H. Lauter et al., Eds., vol. 5, pp. 163–180, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 4th edition, 2000, (German). View at Google Scholar
  433. C. L. Marvel and S. Paradiso, “Cognitive and neurological impairment in mood disorders,” Psychiatric Clinics of North America, vol. 27, no. 1, pp. 19–36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  434. S. H. Sullivan, “The onset of schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 6, pp. 105–134, 1927. View at Google Scholar
  435. D. E. Cameron, “Early schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 95, pp. 567–578, 1938. View at Google Scholar
  436. K. Conrad, Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestalt-analyse des Wahns, Thieme-Verlag, Stuttgart, Germany, 1958 (German).
  437. J. P. Docherty, D. P. van Kammen, S. G. Siris, and S. R. Marder, “Stages of onset of schizophrenic psychosis,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 135, no. 4, pp. 420–426, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  438. M. Hambrecht and H. Häfner, ““Trema, Apophänie, Apokalypse”—Ist Conrads Phasenmodell empirisch begründbar?” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 61, no. 12, pp. 418–423, 1993 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  439. F. Schultze-Lutter, W. Löffler, and H. Häfner, “Testing models of the early course of schizophrenia,” in Risk and Protective Factors in Schizophrenia, H. Häfner, Ed., pp. 229–241, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  440. P. D. McGorry, J. Edwards, C. Mihalopoulos, S. M. Harrigan, and H. J. Jackson, “EPPIC: an evolving system of early detection and optimal management,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 305–326, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  441. P. D. McGorry, A. R. Yung, and L. J. Phillips, “The “close-in” or ultra high-risk model: a safe and effective strategy for research and clinical intervention in prepsychotic mental disorder,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 771–790, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  442. A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips, and P. McGorry, Treating Schizophrenia in the Prodromal Phase, Taylor & Francis, London, UK, 2004.
  443. A. R. Yung, H. P. Yuen, P. D. McGorry et al., “Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 39, no. 11-12, pp. 964–971, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  444. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, W. Löffler et al., “Onset and prodromal phase as determinants of the course,” in Search for the Causes of Schizophrenia, Vol. IV: Balance of the Century, W. F. Gattaz and H. Häfner, Eds., pp. 1–24, Steinkopff, Darmstadt, Germany, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  445. D. O. Perkins, H. Gu, K. Boteva, and J. A. Lieberman, “Relationship between duration of untreated psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a critical review and meta-analysis,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 162, no. 10, pp. 1785–1804, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  446. F. Schultze-Lutter, S. Ruhrmann, H. Picker, H. G. von Reventlow, A. Brockhaus-Dumke, and J. Klosterkötter, “Basic symptoms in early psychotic and depressive disorders,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 191, no. 51, supplement, pp. s31–s37, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  447. F. Schultze-Lutter, S. Ruhrmann, J. Berning, W. Maier, and J. Klosterkötter, “Basic symptoms and ultrahigh risk criteria: symptom development in the initial prodromal state,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 182–191, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  448. F. Schultze-Lutter, J. Klosterkötter, and S. Ruhrmann, “Improving the clinical prediction of psychosis by combining ultra-high risk criteria and cognitive basic symptoms,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 154, no. 1–3, pp. 100–106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  449. R. K. R. Salokangas and T. McGlashan, “Early detection and intervention of psychosis. A review,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 92–105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  450. J. Rietdijk, S. J. Hogerzeil, A. M. van Hemert, P. Cuijpers, D. H. Linszen, and M. van der Gaag, “Pathways to psychosis: Help-seeking behavior in the prodromal phase,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 132, no. 2-3, pp. 213–219, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  451. W. Rössler, M. P. Hengartner, V. Ajdacic-Gross, H. Haker, A. Gamma, and J. Angst, “Sub-clinical psychosis symptoms in young adults are risk factors for subsequent common mental disorders,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 18–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  452. J. Addington and R. Heinssen, “Prediction and prevention of psychosis in youth at clinical high risk,” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, vol. 8, pp. 269–289, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  453. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, G. Trendler, W. an der Heiden, M. Schmidt, and R. Könnecke, “Schizophrenia and depression: challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases—a controlled study of schizophrenia, depression and healthy controls,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 11–24, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  454. T. H. McGlashan, “Duration of untreated psychosis in first-episode schizophrenia: marker or determinant of course?” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 899–907, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  455. R. M. G. Norman and A. K. Malla, “Duration of untreated psychosis: a critical examination of the concept and its importance,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 381–400, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  456. E. C. Johnstone, T. J. Crow, A. L. Johnson, and J. F. MacMillan, “The Northwick Park study of first episodes of schizophrenia. I. Presentation of the illness and problems relating to admission,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, pp. 115–120, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  457. J. P. McEvoy, N. R. Schooler, and W. H. Wilson, “Predictors of therapeutic response to haloperidol in acute schizophrenia,” Psychopharmacology Bulletin, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 97–101, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  458. M. Birchwood and F. Macmillan, “Early intervention in schizophrenia,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 374–378, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  459. A. D. Loebel, J. A. Lieberman, J. M. J. Alvir, D. I. Mayerhoff, S. H. Geisler, and S. R. Szymanski, “Duration of psychosis and outcome in first-episode schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 149, no. 9, pp. 1183–1188, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  460. D. Linszen, M. Lenior, L. De Haan, P. Dingemans, and B. Gersons, “Early intervention, untreated psychosis and the course of early schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 172, no. 33, pp. 84–89, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  461. H. Häfner and K. Maurer, “Early detection of schizophrenia: current evidence and future perspectives,” World Psychiatry, vol. 5, pp. 130–138, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  462. A. C. Altamura, R. Bassetti, F. Sassella, D. Salvadori, and E. Mundo, “Duration of untreated psychosis as a predictor of outcome in first-episode schizophrenia: a retrospective study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 52, no. 1-2, pp. 29–36, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  463. A. R. Yung, E. J. Kollackey, B. Nelson, and P. McGorry, “The impact of early intervention in schizophrenia,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 299–316, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  464. C. Rapp, E. Studerus, H. Bugra et al., “Duration of untreated psychosis and cognitive functioning,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 145, no. 1–3, pp. 43–49, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  465. R. J. Wyat, “Neuroleptics and the natural course of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 325–351, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  466. R. J. Wyatt, “Early intervention with neuroleptics may decrease the long-term morbidity of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 201–202, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  467. J. A. Lieberman, B. B. Sheitman, and B. J. Kinon, “Neurochemical sensitization in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia: deficits and dysfunction in neuronal regulation and plasticity,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 205–229, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  468. J. A. Lieberman, G. Tollefson, and M. Tohen, “Comparative efficacy and safety of atypical and coventional antipsychotic drugs in first-episode psychosis: a randomized, double-blind trial of olanzapine versus haloperidol,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, pp. 1396–1404, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  469. R. J. Wyatt and I. D. Henter, “The effects of early and sustained intervention on the long-term morbidity of schizophrenia,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 32, no. 3-4, pp. 169–177, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  470. N. Tandon, J. Shah, M. S. Keshavan, and R. Tandon, “Attenuated psychosis and the schizophrenia prodrome: current status of risk identification and psychosis prevention,” Neuropsychiatry, vol. 2, pp. 345–353, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  471. M. T. Tsuang, J. van Os, R. Tandon et al., “Attenuated psychosis syndrome in DSM-5,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 150, pp. 31–35, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  472. J. O. Johannessen, T. K. Larsen, M. Horneland et al., “The TIPS Project. A systematized program ro reduce duration of untreated psychosis in first episode psychosis,” in Early Intervention in Psychotic Disorders, T. Miller, S. A. Mednick, T. H. McGlashan, J. Libiger, and J. O. Johannessen, Eds., pp. 151–166, Kluwer Academic Pubishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  473. P. McGorry, “A stitch in time … the scope for preventive strategies in early psychosis,” in The Recognition and Management of Early Psychosis, P. D. McGorry and H. J. Jackson, Eds., pp. 3–23, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  474. P. D. McGorry, A. R. Yung, L. J. Phillips et al., “Randomized controlled trial of interventions designed to reduce the risk of progression to first-episode psychosis in a clinical sample with subthreshold symptoms,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 59, no. 10, pp. 921–928, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  475. S. Ruhrmann, K. U. Kühn, M. Streit, R. Bottlender, W. Maier, and J. Klosterkötter, “Pharmakologische und psychologische Frühintervention bei Risikopersonen mit psychosenahen Prodromen: erste Ergebnisse einer kontrollierten Studie,” Nervenarz, vol. 73, no. 1, p. 9, 2002 (German). View at Google Scholar
  476. T. H. McGlashan, R. B. Zipursky, D. Perkins et al., “The PRIME North America randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis: I. Study rationale and design,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 61, no. 1, pp. 7–18, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  477. J. Klosterkötter, “Prävention psychotischer Störungen,” Nervenarzt, vol. 84, pp. 1299–1309, 2013 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  478. M. Hambrecht, M. Wagner, A. Bechdolf, S. Maier, and C. Schröder, Psychologische Frühintervention bei Risikopersonen/Personen mit psychosefernen Prodromen. Manual für die Durchführung der Studieninterventionen im Projekt 1.1.2 des Kompetenznetz Schizophrenie, (KNS-Zentrale, Rheinische Landes- und Hochschulklinik Düsseldorf, Postfach 12 05 10, D-40605 Düsseldorf), 2000 (German).
  479. S. Lewis, N. Tarrier, G. Haddock et al., “Randomised controlled trial of cognitive-behavioural therapy in early schizophrenia: acute-phase outcomes,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 181, no. 43, pp. s91–s97, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  480. V. Bird, P. Premkumar, T. Kendall, C. Whittington, J. Mitchell, and E. Kuipers, “Early intervention services, cognitive-behavioural therapy and family intervention in early psychosis: systematic review,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 197, no. 5, pp. 350–356, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  481. G. Lee, C. Barrowclough, and F. Lobban, “Positive affect in the family environment protects against relapse in first-episode psychosis,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 49, no. 3, pp. 367–376, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  482. A. Bechdolf, D. Köhn, B. Knost, R. Pukrop, and J. Klosterkötter, “A randomized comparison of group cognitive-behavioural therapy and group psychoeducation in acute patients with schizophrenia: outcome at 24 months,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 112, no. 3, pp. 173–179, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  483. A. Bechdolf, V. Veith, D. Schwarzer et al., “Cognitive-behavioral therapy in the pre-psychotic phase: an exploratory study,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 136, no. 2-3, pp. 251–255, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  484. A. P. Morrison, P. French, L. Walford et al., “Cognitive therapy for the prevention of psychosis in people at ultra-high risk: randomised controlled trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 185, pp. 291–297, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  485. S. J. Bartels and R. E. Drake, “Depressive symptoms in schizophrenia: comprehensive differential diagnosis,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 467–483, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  486. S. G. Siris and C. Bench, “Depression and schizophrenia,” in Schizophrenia, S. R. Hirsch and D. R. Weinberger, Eds., pp. 142–167, Blackwell Publishing Company, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  487. H. Häfner, “The early Kraepelin's dichotomy of schizophrenia and affective disorder—evidence for separate diseases?” European Journal of Psychiary, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 98–113, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  488. E. Kraepelin, Psychiatrie, vol. 1–4, Barth, Leipzig, Germany, 8th edition, 1909–1915 (German).
  489. A. Jablensky, H. Hugler, M. von Cranach, and K. Kalinov, “Kraepelin revisited: a reassessment and statistical analysis of dementia praecox and manic-depressive insanity in 1908,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 843–858, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  490. M. C. Angermeyer and L. Kühn, “Gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia: an overview,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Neurological Sciences, vol. 237, no. 6, pp. 351–364, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  491. R. R. J. Lewine, “Gender and Schizophrenia,” in Handbook of Schizophrenia, H. A. Nasrallah, Ed., vol. 3, pp. 379–397, Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  492. J. M. Goldstein, “The impact of gender on understanding the epidemiology of schizopohrenia,” in Gender and Psychopathology, M. W. Seeman, Ed., pp. 159–199, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  493. D. J. Castle, “Women and schizophrenia: an epidemiological perspective,” in Women and Schizophrenia, D. J. Castle, J. McGrath, and J. Kulkarni, Eds., pp. 19–34, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  494. H. Häfner, A. Riecher-Rössler, W. an der Heiden, K. Maurer, B. Fätkenheuer, and W. Löffler, “Generating and testing a causal explanation of the gender difference in age at first onset of schizophrenia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 925–940, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  495. H. Häfner, K. Maurer, W. Löffler et al., “The epidemiology of early schizophrenia. Influence of age and gender on onset and early course,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, no. 23, pp. 29–38, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  496. H. Häfner, A. Riecher, K. Maurer, W. Löffler, P. Munk-Jörgensen, and E. Strömgren, “How does gender influence age at first hospitalization for schizophrenia? A transnational case register study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 903–918, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  497. S. V. Eranti, J. H. MacCabe, H. Bundy, and R. M. Murray, “Gender difference in age at onset of schizophrenia: a meta-analysis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. 155–167, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  498. B. N. Gangadhar, C. Panner Selvan, D. K. Subbakrishna, and N. Janakiramaiah, “Age-at-onset and schizophrenia: reversed gender effect,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 105, no. 4, pp. 317–319, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  499. G. V. S. Murthy, N. Janakiramaiah, B. N. Gangadhar, and D. K. Subbakrishna, “Sex difference in age at onset of schizophrenia: discrepant findings from India,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 321–325, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  500. G. Stöber, E. Franzek, I. Haubitz, B. Pfuhlmann, and H. Beckmann, “Gender differences and age of onset in the catatonic subtypes of schizophrenia,” Psychopathology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 307–312, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  501. K. Leonhard, Aufteilung der endogenen Psychosen, Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 5th edition, 1980 (German).
  502. M. Hambrecht, K. Maurer, H. Häfner, and N. Sartorius, “Transnational stability of gender differences in schizophrenia? An analysis based on the WHO study on determinants of outcome of severe mental disorders,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 242, no. 1, pp. 6–12, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  503. M. Hambrecht, K. Maurer, and H. Häfner, “Gender differences in schizophrenia in three cultures. Results of the WHO collaborative study on psychiatric disability,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 117–121, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  504. S. O. Moldin, “Gender and schizophrenia,” in Gender and Its Effects on Psychopathology, E. Frank, Ed., pp. 169–186, American Psychiatric Press, Washington, DC, USA, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  505. S. V. Faraone, W. J. Chen, J. M. Goldstein, and M. T. Tsuang, “Gender differences in age at onset of schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 164, pp. 625–629, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  506. W. F. Gattaz, S. Behrens, J. de Vry, and H. Häfner, “Estradiol inhibits dopamine mediated behavior in rats—an animal model of sex-specific differences in schizophrenia,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 60, pp. 8–16, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  507. H. Häfner, S. Behrens, J. De Vry, and W. F. Gattaz, “An animal model for the effects of estradiol on dopamine-mediated behavior: implications for sex differences in schizophrenia,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 125–134, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  508. M. Laruelle, A. Abi-Dargham, C. H. van Dyck et al., “Single photon emission computerized tomography imaging of amphetamine-induced dopamine release in drug-free schizophrenic subjects,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 93, no. 17, pp. 9235–9240, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  509. A. Breier, T. P. Su, R. Saunders et al., “Schizophrenia is associated with elevated amphetamine-induced synaptic dopamine concentrations: Evidence from a novel positron emission tomography method,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 2569–2574, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  510. A. Abi-Dargham, R. Gil, J. Krystal et al., “Increased striatal dopamine transmission in schizophrenia: confirmation in a second cohort,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 761–767, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  511. L. H. Lindström, O. Gefvert, G. Hagberg et al., “Increased dopamine synthesis rate in medial prefrontal cortex and striatum in schizophrenia indicated by L-(β-11C) DOPA and PET,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 681–688, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  512. S. Kapur and D. Mamo, “Half a century of antipsychotics and still a central role for dopamine D2 receptors,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 7, pp. 1081–1090, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  513. G. J. Lyon, A. Abi-Dargham, H. Moore, J. A. Lieberman, J. A. Javitch, and D. Sulzer, “Presynaptic regulation of dopamine transmission in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 108–117, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  514. D. Eyles, J. Feldon, and U. Meyer, “Schizophrenia: Do all roads lead to dopamine or is this where they start? Evidence from two epidemiologically informed developmental rodent models,” Translational Psychiatry, vol. 2, article e81, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  515. J. Kulkarni and G. Fink, “Hormones and psychoses,” in Women and Schizophrenia, D. J. Castle, J. McGrath, and J. Kulkarni, Eds., pp. 51–66, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  516. S. Akhondzadeh, A. A. Nejatisafa, H. Amini et al., “Adjunctive estrogen treatment in women with chronic schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1007–1012, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  517. J. Kulkarni, A. De Castella, P. B. Fitzgerald et al., “Estrogen in severe mental illness: a potential new treatment approach,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 8, pp. 955–960, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  518. J. Kulkarni, E. Gavrilidis, W. Wang et al., “Estradiol for treatment-resistant schizophrenia: a large-scale randomized-controlled trial in women of child-bearing age,” Molecular Psychiatry, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  519. L. E. DeLisi, N. Bass, A. Boccio, G. Shields, C. Morganti, and A. Vita, “Age of onset in familial schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 334–335, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  520. M. Albus and W. Maier, “Lack of gender differences in age at onset in familial schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  521. M. Alda, B. Ahrens, W. Lit et al., “Age of onset in familial and sporadic schizophrenia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 447–450, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  522. R. Könnecke, H. Häfner, K. Maurer, W. Löffler, and W. an der Heiden, “Main risk factors for schizophrenia: increased familial loading and pre- and peri-natal complications antagonize the protective effect of oestrogen in women,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 81–93, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  523. R. L. Spitzer, J. Endicott, and E. Robins, Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition, 1977.
  524. J. van Os, R. Howard, N. Takei, and R. Murray, “Increasing age is a risk factor for psychosis in the elderly,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 161–164, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  525. D. J. Castle, S. Wessely, J. van Os, and R. M Murray, Psychosis in the Inner City, Psychology Press, East Sussex, UK, 1998.
  526. H. Häfner, W. an der Heiden, S. Behrens et al., “Causes and consequences of the gender difference in age at onset of schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 99–113, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  527. D. J. Castle, “Preface,” in Women and Schizophrenia, D. J. Castle, J. McGrath, and J. Kulkarni, Eds., p. 11, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  528. P. Jörgensen and P. Munk-Jörgensen, “Paranoid psychoses in the elderly,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 72, pp. 358–363, 1985. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  529. D. J. Castle and R. M. Murray, “The epidemiology of late-onset schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 691–700, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  530. O. P. Almeida, R. J. Howard, R. Levy, and A. S. David, “Psychotic states arising in late life (Late paraphrenia): psychopathology and nosology,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 166, pp. 205–214, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  531. H. Häfner, W. Löffler, A. Riecher-Rössler, and W. Häfner-Ranabauer, “Schizophrenie und Wahn im höheren und hohen Lebensalter,” Nervenarzt, vol. 72, pp. 347–357, 2001 (German). View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  532. M. Roth, “The natural history of mental disorder in old age,” Journal of Mental Science, vol. 101, pp. 281–301, 1955. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  533. D. W. K. Kay and M. Roth, “Environmental and hereditary factors in the schizophrenia of old age (“late paraphrenia”) and their bearing on the general problem of causation in schizophrenia,” Journal of Mental Science, vol. 107, pp. 649–686, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  534. M. J. Harris and D. V. Jeste, “Late-onset schizophrenia: an overview,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 39–55, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  535. H. Häfner, M. Hambrecht, W. Löffler, P. Munk-Jørgensen, and A. Riecher-Rössler, “Is schizophrenia a disorder of all ages? A comparison of first episodes and early course across the life-cycle,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 351–365, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  536. H. Remschmidt, Schizophrene Erkrankungen im Kindes-und Jugendalter, Schattauer, Stuttgart, Germany, 2004 (German).
  537. S. Luoma, H. Hakko, T. Ollinen, M. R. Jarvelin, and S. Lindeman, “Association between age at onset and clinical features of schizophrenia,” European Psychiatry, vol. 23, pp. 331–335, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  538. C. Eggers, Schizophrenie des Kindes—und Jugendalters, MWV Medizinisch Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, Berlin, Germany, 2011, (German).
  539. R. P. Bentall, R. Corcoran, R. Howard, N. Blackwood, and P. Kinderman, “Persecutory delusions: a review and theoretical integration,” Clinical Psychology Review, vol. 21, no. 8, pp. 1143–1192, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  540. H. Häfner and W. an der Heiden, “Epidemiology of schizophrenia,” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 139–151, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  541. T. H. McGlashan, “The Chestnut Lodge follow-up study. I. Follow-up methodology and study sample,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 573–585, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  542. T. H. McGlashan, “The Chestnut Lodge follow-up study. II. Long-term outcome of schizophrenia and the affective disorders,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 6, pp. 586–601, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  543. C. M. Harding, G. W. Brooks, T. Ashikaga, J. S. Strauss, and A. Breier, “The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness, I: methodology, study sample, and overall status 32 years later,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 718–726, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  544. C. M. Harding, G. W. Brooks, T. Ashikaga, J. S. Strauss, and A. Breier, “The Vermont longitudinal study of persons with severe mental illness. II: long-term outcome of subjects who retrospectively met DSM-III criteria for schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 144, no. 6, pp. 727–735, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  545. W. T. Carpenter Jr. and J. S. Strauss, “The prediction of outcome in schizophrenia IV: eleven-year follow-up of the Washington IPSS cohort,” Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 179, no. 9, pp. 517–525, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  546. A. Breier, J. L. Schreiber, J. Dyer, and D. Pickar, “National Institute of Mental Health longitudinal study of chronic schizophrenia: prognosis and predictors of outcome,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 239–246, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  547. J. Leff, N. Sartorius, A. Jablensky, A. Korten, and G. Ernberg, “The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia: five-year follow-up findings,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 131–145, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  548. W. an der Heiden, B. Krumm, S. Müller, I. Weber, H. Biehl, and M. Schäfer, “The Mannheim long-term schizophrenia project: initial results on course and outcome 14 years after first admission,” Nervenarzt, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 820–827, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  549. W. an der Heiden, B. Krumm, S. Müller, I. Weber, H. Biehl, and M. Schäfer, “Eine prospektive Studie zum Langzeitverlauf schizophrener Psychosen: Ergebnisse der 14-Jahres-Katamnese,” Zeitschrift für Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 5, pp. 66–75, 1996 (German). View at Google Scholar
  550. W. an der Heiden, “Der Langzeitverlauf schizophrener Psychosen—eine Literaturübersicht,” Zeitschrift für Medizinische Psychologie, vol. 5, pp. 8–21, 1996 (German). View at Google Scholar
  551. K. Hopper, G. Harrison, A. Janca, and N. Sartorius, Recovery from Schizophrenia—An International Perspective. A Report from the WHO Collaborative Project, the International Study of Schizophrenia, Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK, 2007.
  552. E. Jääskeläinen, P. Juola, N. Hirvonen et al., “A systematic review and meta-analysis of recovery in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 6, pp. 1296–1306, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  553. J. Marengo, M. Harrow, J. Sands, and C. Galloway, “European versus U.S. data on the course of schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 148, no. 5, pp. 606–611, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  554. A. Marneros, A. Deister, and A. Rohde, Affektive, schizoaffektive und schizophrene Psychosen. Eine vergleichende Langzeitstudie, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1991 (German).
  555. M. Bleuler, Die schizophrenen Geistesstörungen im Lichte langjähriger Kranken- und Familiengeschichten, Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany, 1972, (German).
  556. H. Hinterhuber, “Zur Katamnese der Schizophrenien,” Fortschritte der Neurologie Psychiatrie, vol. 41, no. 10, pp. 527–558, 1973 (German). View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  557. L. Ciompi and C. H. Müller, Lebensweg und Alter der Schizophrenen. Eine katamnestische Langzeitstudie bis ins Senium, vol. 12 of Monographien aus dem Gesamtgebiet der Psychiatrie, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1976, (German).
  558. G. Huber, G. Gross, and R. Schüttler, Schizophrenie. Eine Verlaufs- und sozialpsychiatrische Langzeitstudie, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 1979 (German).
  559. H. Häfner and W. an der Heiden, “The course of schizophrenia in the light of modern follow-up studies: the ABC and WHO studies,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 249, supplement 4, pp. IV14–IV26, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  560. N. Sartorius, W. Gulbinat, G. Harrison, E. Laska, and C. Siegel, “Long-term follow up of schizophrenia in 16 countries: a description of the International Study of Schizophrenia conducted by the World Health Organization,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 249–258, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  561. P. Mason, G. Harrison, C. Glazebrook, I. Medley, and T. Croudace, “The course of schizophrenia over 13 years: a report from the International Study on Schizophrenia (ISoS) coordinated by the World Health Organization,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 169, no. 5, pp. 580–586, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  562. D. Wiersma, F. J. Nienhuis, C. J. Slooff, and R. Giel, “Natural course of schizophrenic disorders: a 15-year followup of a Dutch incidence cohort,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 75–85, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  563. N. Sartorius, A. Jablensky, A. Korten et al., “Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 909–928, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  564. G. Harrison, K. Hopper, T. Craig et al., “Recovery from psychotic illness: a 15- and 25-year international follow-up study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 178, pp. 506–517, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  565. N. M. Menezes, T. Arenovich, and R. B. Zipursky, “A systematic review of longitudinal outcome studies of first-episode psychosis,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 1349–1362, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  566. H. Häfner, W. Löffler, K. Maurer, A. Riecher-Rössler, and A. Stein, Interview für die retrospektive Erfassung des Erkrankungsbeginns und-verlaufs bei Schizophrenie und anderen Psychosen, Huber, Bern, Switzerland, 1999 (German).
  567. H. Häfner, W. Löffler, K. Maurer, A. Riecher-Rössler, and A. Stein, IRAOS—Interview for the Retrospective Assessment of the Onset and Course of Schizophrenia and Other Psychoses, Hogrefe & Huber, Göttingen, Germany, 2003.
  568. A. Jablensky, “The epidemiological horizon,” in Schizophrenia, S. R. Hirsch and D. Weinberger, Eds., pp. 203–231, Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  569. R. A. Bressan, A. C. Chaves, L. S. Pilowsky, I. Shirakawa, and J. J. Mari, “Depressive episodes in stable schizophrenia: critical evaluation of the DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnostic criteria,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 117, no. 1, pp. 47–56, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  570. C. M. Harding, “Course types in schizophrenia: an analysis of European and American studies,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 633–643, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  571. H. Häfner and W. an der Heiden, “Course and outcome of schizophrenia,” in Schizophrenia, S. R. Hirsch and D. Weinberger, Eds., pp. 124–147, Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK, 2nd edition, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  572. M. Shepherd, D. Watt, I. Falloon, and N. Smeeton, The Natural History of Schizophrenia: A Five-Year Follow-up Study of Outcome and Prediction in a Representative Sample of Schizophrenics, Psychological Medicine Monograph, supplement 15, Cambridge University Press, London, UK, 1989.
  573. J. W. Newcomer and S. Leucht, “Metabolic adverse effects associated with antipsychotic medications,” in Schizophrenia, D. R. Weinberger and P. J. Harrison, Eds., pp. 577–598, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 3rd edition, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  574. S. Brown, “Excess mortality of schizophrenia. A meta-analysis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 171, pp. 502–508, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  575. S. Brown, M. Kim, C. Mitchell, and H. Inskip, “Twenty-five year mortality of a community cohort with schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 196, no. 2, pp. 116–121, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  576. M. V. Seeman, “An outcome measure in schizophrenia: mortality,” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 55–60, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  577. C. W. Colton and R. W. Manderscheid, “Congruencies in increased mortality rates, years of potential life lost, and causes of death among public mental health clients in eight states,” Preventing Chronic Disease, vol. 3, no. 2, article A42, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  578. T. M. Laursen, “Life expectancy among persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 131, no. 1–3, pp. 101–104, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  579. H. Häfner and S. Kasper, “Akute lebensbedrohliche Katatonie: epidemiologische und klinische Befunde,” Nervenarzt, vol. 53, pp. 385–394, 1982 (German). View at Google Scholar
  580. J. Höffler and P. Bräunig, “Abnahme der Häufigkeit katatoner Schizophrenien im Epochenvergleich,” in Differenzierung Katatoner und Neuroleptika-Induzierter Bewegungsstörungen, P. Bräunig, Ed., pp. 32–35, Thieme, Stuttgart, Germany, 1995, (German). View at Google Scholar
  581. Ö. Ödegård, “Mortality in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals 1950–1962,” Acta Genetica et Statistica Medica, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 137–153, 1967. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  582. P. Allebeck, “Schizophrenia: a life-shortening disease,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 81–89, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  583. D. Healy, J. Le Noury, M. Harris et al., “Mortality in schizophrenia and related psychoses: data from two cohorts,” British Medical Journal, vol. 2, Article ID e001810, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  584. S. Leucht, T. Burkard, J. Henderson, M. Maj, and N. Sartorius, “Physical illness and schizophrenia: a review of the literature,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 116, no. 5, pp. 317–333, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  585. T. M. Laursen, T. Munk-Olsen, E. Agerbo, C. Gasse, and P. B. Mortensen, “Somatic hospital contacts, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality from heart disease in patients with severe mental disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 7, pp. 713–720, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  586. T. M. Laursen, T. Munk-Olsen, and C. Gasse, “Chronic somatic comorbidity and excess mortality due to natural causes in persons with schizophrenia or bipolar affective disorder,” PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 9, Article ID e24597, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  587. B. G. Druss and T. H. Bornemann, “Improving health and health care for persons with serious mental illness: the window for US federal policy change,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no. 19, pp. 1972–1973, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  588. J. W. Newcomer and C. H. Hennekens, “Severe mental illness and risk of cardiovascular disease,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no. 15, pp. 1794–1796, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  589. S. M. Grundy, “Obesity, metabolic syndrome, and coronary atherosclerosis,” Circulation, vol. 105, no. 23, pp. 2696–2698, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  590. D. E. Casey, D. W. Haupt, J. W. Newcomer et al., “Antipsychotic-induced weight gain and metabolic abnormalities: implications for increased mortality in patients with schizophrenia,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 7, pp. 4–18, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  591. J. P. Despres, I. Lemieuz, and J. Bergeron, “Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 28, pp. 1039–1049, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  592. D. B. Allison, K. R. Fontaine, J. E. Manson, J. Stevens, and T. B. VanItallie, “Annual deaths attributable to obesity in the United States,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 282, no. 16, pp. 1530–1538, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  593. M. T. Susce, N. Villanueva, F. J. Diaz, and J. de Leon, “Obesity and associated complications in patients with severe mental illnesses: a cross-sectional survey,” Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 167–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  594. R. G. McCreadie, “Diet, smoking and cardiovascular risk in people with schizophrenia: descriptive study,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 183, pp. 534–539, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  595. T. Cohn, D. Prud'homme, D. Streiner, H. Kameh, and G. Remington, “Characterizing coronary heart disease risk in chronic schizophrenia: high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome,” The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 11, pp. 753–760, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  596. K. Hawton, L. Sutton, C. Haw, J. Sinclair, and J. J. Deeks, “Schizophrenia and suicide: systematic review of risk factors,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 187, pp. 9–20, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  597. C. B. Caldwell and I. I. Gottesman, “Schizophrenics kill themselves too: a review of risk factors for suicide,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 571–590, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  598. S. J. Bartels, R. E. Drake, and G. J. McHugo, “Alcohol abuse, depression, and suicidal behavior in schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 149, no. 3, pp. 394–395, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  599. A. McGirr, M. Tousignant, D. Routhier et al., “Risk factors for completed suicide in schizophrenia and other chronic psychotic disorders: a case-control study,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 84, no. 1, pp. 132–143, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  600. H. Häfner and W. an der Heiden, “Schizophrenia and depression—challenging the paradigm of two separate diseases,” in Textbook of Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders, M. S. Ritsner, Ed., pp. 389–402, Springer, London, UK, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  601. W. S. Fenton, “Depression, suicide, and suicide prevention in schizophrenia,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 34–49, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  602. N. Crumlish, P. Whitty, M. Kamali et al., “Early insight predicts depression and attempted suicide after 4 years in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 112, no. 6, pp. 449–455, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  603. J. D. López-Moríñigo, R. Ramos-Ríos, A. S. David, and R. Dutta, “Insight in schizophrenia and risk of suicide: a systematic update,” Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 313–322, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  604. J. van Os, “Is there a continuum of psychotic experiences in the general population?” Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 242–252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  605. J. Allardyce, R. G. McCreadie, G. Morrison, and J. van Os, “Do symptom dimensions or categorical diagnoses best discriminate between known risk factors for psychosis?” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 429–437, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  606. W. Gaebel and J. Zielasek, “The DSM-V initiative “deconstructing psychosis” in the context of Kraepelin's concept on nosology,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 258, no. 2, pp. 41–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  607. S. Arndt, N. C. Andreasen, M. Flaum, D. Miller, and P. Nopoulos, “A longitudinal study of symptom dimensions in schizophrenia: prediction and patterns of change,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 352–360, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  608. H. Häfner, “Psychose, Depression und manische Symptomatik—Leitsyndrome eigener Krankheiten oder Kontinuum?” in Schizophrenie—Zukunftsperspektiven in Klinik und Forschung, H.-J. Möller and N. Müller, Eds., pp. 3–30, Springer, Vienna, Germany, 2010 (German).
  609. N. Sartorius, “Stigma: what can psychiatrists do about it?” The Lancet, vol. 352, no. 9133, pp. 1058–1059, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  610. B. G. Link, J. C. Phelan, M. Bresnahan, A. Stueve, and B. A. Pescosolido, “Public conceptions of mental illness: labels, causes, dangerousness, and social distance,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 1328–1333, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  611. B. Mueller, C. Nordt, C. Lauber, P. Rueesch, P. C. Meyer, and W. Roessler, “Social support modifies perceived stigmatization in the first years of mental illness: a longitudinal approach,” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 62, no. 1, pp. 30–49, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  612. V. Gentil, “More for the same?” Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria, vol. 29, no. 2, pp. 193–194, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  613. W. Rössler, “Does stigma impair treatment response and rehabilitation in schizophrenia? The “contribution” of mental health professionals,” in Advances in Schizophrenia Research 2009, W. F. Gattaz and G. Busatto, Eds., pp. 429–439, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  614. M. Sato, “Renaming schizophrenia: a Japanese perspective,” World Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 53–55, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at MathSciNet
  615. H. Takahashi, T. Ideno, S. Okubo et al., “Impact of changing the Japanese term for “schizophrenia” for reasons of stereotypical beliefs of schizophrenia in Japanese youth,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 112, no. 1–3, pp. 149–152, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  616. M. C. Angermeyer, H. Matschinger, M. G. Carta, and C. Schomerus, “Changes in the perception of mental illness stigma in Germany over the last two decades,” European Psychiatry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  617. C. Thornicroft, A. Wyllie, G. Thornicroft, and N. Mehta, “Impact of the “Like Minds, Like Mine” anti-stigma and discrimination campaign in New Zealand on anticipated and experienced discrimination,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 360–370, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar