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Volume 1, Issue 2, Pages 105-111
Research Article

Reverse micelles in organic solvents: a medium for the biotechnological use of extreme halophilic enzymes at low salt concentration

1División de Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Alicante, Apartado 99, 03080 Alicante, Spain
2Thomas Jefferson University, BLSB 511, 233 South 10th Street, Philadelphia PA 19107, USA

Received 19 December 2001; Accepted 8 March 2002

Copyright © 2002 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Alkaline p-nitrophenylphosphate phosphatase (pNPPase) from the halophilic archaeobacterium Halobacterium salinarum (previously halobium) was solubilized at low salt concentration in reverse micelles of hexadecyltrimethylammoniumbromide in cyclohexane with 1-butanol as cosurfactant. The enzyme maintained its catalytic properties under these conditions. The thermodynamic “solvation–stabilization hypothesis” has been used to explain the bell-shaped dependence of pNPPase activity on the water content of reverse micelles, in terms of protein–solvent interactions. According to this model, the stability of the folded protein depends on a network of hydrated ions associated with acidic residues at the protein surface. At low salt concentration and low water content (the ratio of water concentration to surfactant concentration; w0), the network of hydrated ions within the reverse micelles may involve the cationic heads of the surfactant. The bell-shaped profile of the relationship between enzyme activity and w0 varied depending on the concentrations of NaCl and Mn2+.