Molecular Characterization of Copper and Cadmium Resistance Determinants in the Biomining Thermoacidophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus metallicus
Changes in the proteome of S. metallicus grown in the presence of Cu. Cells were incubated in the absence of any added metal (a) or in the presence of 100 mM Cu (b). Arrows indicate the spots that were downregulated (a) or upregulated (b) in the presence of Cu. Numbers indicate the spots with increased intensity in cells treated with copper. The dashed boxes are shown as enlarged areas that include some proteins upregulated in the presence of Cu and Cd (Figure 3). The bottom panels show low molecular weight proteins upregulated in the presence of Cu separated by using a 15% polyacrylamide gel in the second dimension.