Table of Contents
Anatomy Research International
Volume 2012, Article ID 123713, 10 pages
Research Article

Application of Soft Tissue Artifact Compensation Using Displacement Dependency between Anatomical Landmarks and Skin Markers

Department of Industrial and Management Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719, Republic of Korea

Received 9 March 2012; Revised 15 May 2012; Accepted 23 May 2012

Academic Editor: Eleftherios Kellis

Copyright © 2012 Taebeum Ryu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Soft tissue artifact is known to be one of the main sources of errors in motion analysis by means of stereophotogrammetry. Among many approaches to reduce such errors, one is to estimate the position of anatomical landmarks during a motion with joint angle or displacement of skin markers, which is the so-called compensation method of anatomical landmarks. The position of anatomical landmarks was modeled from the data of the so-called dynamic calibration, in which anatomical landmark positions are calibrated in an ad hoc motion. This study aimed to apply the compensation methods with joint angle and skin marker displacement to three lower extremity motions (walking, sit-to-stand/stand-to-sit, and step up/down) in ten healthy males and compare their reliability. To compare the methods, two sets of kinematic variables were calculated using two different marker clusters, and the difference was obtained. Results showed that the compensation method with skin marker displacement had less differences by 30–60% compared to without compensation. In addition, it had significantly less difference in some kinematic variables (7 of 18) by 25–40% compared to the compensation method with joint angle.