Anatomy Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 2

Review Article

Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

Table 2

Summary of the incidences of documented ethnic and population variations in the anatomy of mandibular second premolars.

Geographic
and ethnic
distribution
Materials
and
methods
No. of teeth in the study ( )Root anatomyRoot canal anatomyRoot canal pattern (Vertucci)
Apical foraminaReferences
1
root
2 roots>2 roots1 canal2 canals>2 canalsC-shapedType IType IIType IIIType IVType VType VIType VIIType VIIIOthers types123

Caucasian
FranceIn vitro: radiograph and sectioning32897.6% (320)2.4% (8)0%
(0)
86.6% (284)13.4% (44)Geider et al. [4], 1989
GermanyIn vitro: analysis of extracted teeth208999.85% (2086)0.05% (1)0.1% (2)Visser [41], 1948
PolandIn vitro: extraction and RCT5668.2% (38)31.8% (18)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Rózyło et al. [6], 2008
U.S.AIn vitro: clearing400100% (400)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
97.5% (390)2.5% (10)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
97.5% (390)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
2.5% (10)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
97.5% (390)2.5% (10)0%
(0)
Vertucci [7], 1984
In vitro: sectioning32100% (32)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
65.6% (21)34.4% (11)Barrett [11], 1925
In vitro: extraction and radiograph90696.6% (902)0%
(0)
3.4% (4)87.5% (792)12.5  
(112)
0.4% (2)0%
(0)
Zillich and Dowson [12], 1973
In vitro: grinding and examination under magnification5092% (46)8%
(4)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
96% (48)4% (2)0%
(0)
Green [9], 1973
Subgroup ethnic incidence386198.81%0.49%0.7%82.9%17.1%0.07%0%97.5%2.5%96.75%3.25%

African
SenegaleseIn vivo: radiographic examination40886% (351)12% (49)2%
(8)
0%
(0)
Mbaye et al. [15], 2008

Indian
IndiaIn vitro: clearing4080% (32)20%
(8)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
80% (32)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
2.5% (1)17.5% (7)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
80% (32)20% (8)0%
(0)
Parekh et al. [19], 2011
In vitro: SCT9697.9% (94)2.1% (2)0%
(0)
87% (83)13.5% (13)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
80% (78)9%
(9)
3%
(3)
2%
(2)
4%
(4)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
94% (90)6%
(6)
0%
(0)
V. K. Sikri and P. Sikri [21], 1994
Subgroup ethnic incidence13697.9%2.1%0%83.5%16.75%0%0%80%4.5%1.5%2.25%10.75%87%13%

Mongoloid
ChinaIn vivo: CBCT178100% (178)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
97.2% (173)2.2%
(4)
0%
(0)
0.6%
(1)
97.2% (173)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.5% (1)1.69% (3)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.5%
(1)
Tian et al. [25], 2012
JapanIn vitro: radiograph 4097.9% (39)2.1%
(1)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Miyoshi et al. [29], 1977
KoreaCBCT78999.4% (784)0.6% (5)0%
(0)
Park et al. [31], 2013
Subgroup ethnic incidence100799.7%0.3%0%97.5%2.15%0%0.3%97.2%0.5%1.69%0.5%

Middle east
KuwaitIn vitro: radiograph of RCT teeth6495.6% (61)4.4% (3)0%
(0)
95.3% (61)4.7%
(3)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
95.3% (61)4.7% (3)0%
(0)
Zaatar et al. [32], 1997
JordanIn vitro: clearing40097.2% (389)2.8% (11)0%
(0)
72% (288)27.5% (110)0.5% (2)0%
(0)
78% (288)3.8% (15)0.1% (4)7.5% (30)15.3% (61)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.5%
(2)
74.2% (337)15.8% (63)0%
(0)
Awawdeh and Al-Qudah [33], 2008
IranIn vitro: clearing103100% (103)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
80.5% (83)17.5% (18)0%
(0)
2%
(2)
76.3% (76)7.9% (9)9.9% (11)5.9% (7)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
94.1% (97)5.9% (6)0%
(0)
Rahimi et al. [35], 2007
In vitro: clearing and sectioning8088.8% (71)11.2% (9)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
91.2% (73)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
97.5% (78)2.5% (2)0%
(0)
Hasheminia and Hashemi [39], 2005
In vitro: clearing13794.2% (129)5.8%
(8)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
75.9% (104)24.1% (33)0%
(0)
Rahimi et al. [40], 2009
TurkeyIn vitro: clearing100100% (100)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
93.6% (94)6.4%
(6)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
93.6% (94)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
6.4% (6)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
93.6% (94)6.4% (6)0%
(0)
Çalişkan et al. [36], 1995
In vitro: clearing200100% (200)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
71% (142)29% (58)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
71% (142)7% (14)3.5% (7)9% (18)7%
(14)
1.5% (3)1%
(2)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
81.5% (163)18.5% (37)0%
(0)
Sert and Bayirli [37], 2004
Subgroup ethnic incidence108498.56%1.44%0%85.06%14.59%0.07%0.29%82.02%3.74%2.7%4.48%5.74%0.3%0.2%0.1%87.44%11.13%

Hispanic
MexicoIn vitro: radiographs25098.8% (247)1.2%
(3)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
98.8% (247)1.2% (3)0%
(0)
Pineda and Kuttler [38], 1972
Total no of teeth6746564934633644891231346464658105320317411790
Overall incidence99.28%0.610.01%86.9%12.64%0.31%0.08%83.65%2.86%2.86%3.6%6.52%0.18% 0.12%0%0.18%90.68%9.32%0%

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