Table of Contents
Anatomy Research International
Volume 2016, Article ID 5402081, 8 pages
Research Article

Bilateral Chondroepitrochlearis Muscle: Case Report, Phylogenetic Analysis, and Clinical Significance

1School of Medicine, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
2Post Graduate Institute of Medicine, University of Colombo, Colombo, Sri Lanka
3Menzies Health Institute Queensland, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia
4School of Medical Sciences, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD, Australia

Received 8 December 2015; Revised 5 April 2016; Accepted 13 April 2016

Academic Editor: Erich Brenner

Copyright © 2016 Sujeewa P. W. Palagama et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Anomalous muscular variants of pectoralis major have been reported on several occasions in the medical literature. Among them, chondroepitrochlearis is one of the rarest. Therefore, this study aims to provide a comprehensive description of its anatomy and subsequent clinical significance, along with its phylogenetic importance in pectoral muscle evolution with regard to primate posture. The authors suggest a more appropriate name to better reflect its proximal attachment to the costochondral junction and distal attachment to the epicondyle of humerus, as “chondroepicondylaris”; in addition, we suggest a new theory of phylogenetic significance to explain the twisting of pectoralis major tendon in primates that may have occurred with their adoption to bipedalism and arboreal lifestyle. Finally, the clinical significance of this aberrant muscle is elaborated as a cause of potential neurovascular entrapment and as a possible hurdle during axillary surgeries (i.e., mastectomy).