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Anatomy Research International
Volume 2017, Article ID 1403120, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1403120
Research Article

Infraorbital Foramen and Pterygopalatine Fossa Location in Dry Skulls: Anatomical Guidelines for Local Anesthesia

1Department of Periodontology and Dental Hygiene, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry, Detroit, MI, USA
2Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, University of Detroit Mercy School of Dentistry, Detroit, MI, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Maha Ahmad; ude.ycremdu@1kmdamha

Received 25 August 2017; Accepted 3 December 2017; Published 19 December 2017

Academic Editor: Ruijin Huang

Copyright © 2017 Omar Masabni and Maha Ahmad. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of the study was to locate the infraorbital foramen (IOF) in relation to the infraorbital margin (IOM) for proper injections of local anesthetics in skull specimens. Another aim was to determine the depth of needle penetration into pterygopalatine fossa through the greater palatine canal (GPC). Materials and Methods. 102 skull halves were used to measure the distances between (1) IOF and IOM and (2) IOF and alveolar ridge of maxilla at second premolar. Needles were inserted and bent at a 45° angle, passing through the GPC at the level of hard palate. The depth of the tip of needle emerging out of GPC into pterygopalatine fossa was measured. Results. The mean distance between IOF and IOM was  mm on the right side and  mm on the left. The mean distance between IOF and alveolar bone process of the maxilla at second premolar was  mm on the right side and  mm on the left. The mean depth of penetration of the needle into the pterygopalatine fossa was similar on both sides. Conclusions. Proper identification of IOF and pterygopalatine fossa is of great significance during local anesthesia injections, due to their close proximity to vital anatomic structures.