Figure 2: Recumbent eccentric stepper (Eccentron; BTE Technologies, Inc., Hanover, MD, USA). High muscle forces are generated on an eccentric stepper powered by a 3 hp motor that drives the pedals. As the pedals move toward the participant (blue arrow), the rider resists by applying force to the pedals (red arrow). Because the magnitude of force produced by the motor exceeds that produced by the rider, the leg extensors (green arrows) work eccentrically (lengthening), creating negative work.