Figure 2: Relative expression of mTOR, ULK1, p21, and caspase 3 genes by real-time PCR with reference to β-actin in PBMCs (P) or granulocytes (G) compared with whole blood (WB) specimen of OA outpatients . The control is shown as 1.0 as required for relative quantification with the real-time PCR protocol. The following symbols: , , , and indicate significant differences in gene expression between PBMCs and granulocytes (Student’s unpaired -test).