Table of Contents
Advances in Toxicology
Volume 2014, Article ID 262895, 10 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/262895
Research Article

Evaluating Systemic Toxicity in Rabbits after Acute Ocular Exposure to Irritant Chemicals

Toxicology Division, Biomedical Technology Wing, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 012, India

Received 9 September 2014; Revised 15 October 2014; Accepted 20 October 2014; Published 19 November 2014

Academic Editor: Kanji Yamasaki

Copyright © 2014 Reshma Sebastian Cherian and Mohanan Parayanthala Valappil. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Acute systemic toxicity via ocular exposure route is not a well understood aspect. Any material/drug/chemical that comes in contact with the eye can evade the first pass metabolism and enter the systemic circulation through the conjunctival blood vessels or via the nasolacrimal route. In this study, the effect of ocular irritant chemicals on the systemic toxicity was assessed in rabbit. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to known ocular irritant (cetyl pyridinium chloride, sodium salicylate, imidazole, acetaminophen, and nicotinamide) for 24 h and scored. After a period of 72 h, blood was collected from the animals for examining the hematological and biochemical parameters. The animals were then sacrificed and the eyes were collected for histopathology and cytokine analysis by ELISA. Splenocyte proliferation was assessed by tritiated thymidine incorporation assay. The liver and brain of the treated animals were retrieved for evaluating oxidative damage. The chemicals showed moderate to severe eye irritation. Inflammation was not evident in the histopathology but proinflammatory markers were significantly high. The splenocyte proliferation capacity was undeterred. And there was minimal oxidative stress in the brain and liver. In conclusion, acute exposure of ocular irritants was incapable of producing a prominent systemic side effect in the current scenario.