Table of Contents
Advances in Toxicology
Volume 2014, Article ID 768706, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/768706
Research Article

Extraction of Parquat from Blood by Clinoptilolite

1Department of Medical Nanotechnology, Pharmaceutical Sciences Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1941 93311, Iran
2Department of Medical Nanotechnology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-5983, Tehran 14496 14535, Iran
3Razi Drug Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-5983, Tehran 14496 14535, Iran

Received 9 June 2014; Accepted 23 July 2014; Published 19 August 2014

Academic Editor: Defeng Wu

Copyright © 2014 Mohammad-Amin Aghaii-Afshar and Seyed Vahid Shetab-Boushehri. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Paraquat is a bipyridyl herbicide and organic divalent cation which due to its high polarity and water solubility cannot be readily extracted by common organic solvents from body fluids. Dithionite color test for qualitative and quantitative determination of paraquat in urine has been proposed and used for many years. Although some methods were proposed for solvent extraction of paraquat from blood, they are less practical in clinical laboratories and lack high extraction recovery. Clinoptilolite is a highly porous natural zeolite with cation-exchange property and high surface area. In the present work, extraction of paraquat from human blood by clinoptilolite was investigated and compared with Amberlite CG-50 I, a well-known weak cation-exchanger. Blood paraquat was adsorbed by adsorbents (clinoptilolite or Amberlite) and extracted from them by saturated sodium chloride solution. Extracted paraquat was spectrophotometrically measured by means of sodium dithionite reagent at 394.5 nm. Recovery, limit of detection, considering signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3, and limit of quantification, regarding S/N of 10, of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 were 81.7% ± 3.4%, 0.58 μg, and 1.93 μg and 83.6% ± 3.2%, 0.49 μg, and 1.63 μg, respectively. Repeatabilities (within-laboratory error) of paraquat extraction by clinoptilolite and Amberlite CG-50 I were 7.1% and 6.3%, respectively.