Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autism Research and Treatment
Volume 2015, Article ID 381236, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/381236
Research Article

Parenting Behavior in Mothers of Preschool Children with ASD: Development of a Self-Report Questionnaire

1Parenting and Special Education Research Unit, University of Leuven (KU Leuven), Leopold Vanderkelenstraat 32, P.O. Box 3765, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
2Leuven Autism Research (LAuRes), University of Leuven (KU Leuven), 3000 Leuven, Belgium

Received 15 July 2015; Revised 10 October 2015; Accepted 18 October 2015

Academic Editor: Hansen Wang

Copyright © 2015 Greet Lambrechts et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. M. Bristol and E. Schopler, “A development perspective on stress and coping in families of autistic children,” in Severely Handicapped Children and their Families, J. Blacher, Ed., pp. 91–141, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. E. Dumas, L. C. Wolf, S. N. Fisman, and A. Culligan, “Parenting stress, child behavior problems, and dysphoria in parents of children with autism, Down syndrome, behavior disorders, and normal development,” Exceptionality, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 97–110, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. R. P. Hastings and E. Johnson, “Stress in UK families conducting intensive home-based behavioral intervention for their young child with autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 327–336, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. S. Karst and A. V. van Hecke, “Parent and family impact of autism spectrum disorders: a review and proposed model for intervention evaluation,” Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 247–277, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. L. A. Osborne and P. Reed, “Stress and self-perceived parenting behaviors of parents of children with autistic spectrum conditions,” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 405–414, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. N. O. Davis and A. S. Carter, “Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders: associations with child characteristics,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 38, no. 7, pp. 1278–1291, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. Zaidman-Zait, P. Mirenda, E. Duku et al., “Examination of bidirectional relationships between parent stress and two types of problem behavior in children with autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 1908–1917, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. Wachtel and A. S. Carter, “Reaction to diagnosis and parenting styles among mothers of young children with ASDs,” Autism, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 575–594, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. H. van Ijzendoorn, A. H. Rutgers, M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., “Parental sensitivity and attachment in children with autism spectrum disorder: comparison with children with mental retardation, with language delays, and with typical development,” Child Development, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 597–608, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. M. D. S. Ainsworth, M. C. Blehar, E. Waters, and S. Wall, Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ, USA, 1978.
  11. Z. Biringen, J. L. Robinson, and R. N. Emde, “Appendix B: the emotional availability scales (3rd ed.; an abridged infancy/early childhood version),” Attachment & Human Development, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 256–270, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  12. J. E. Grusec and M. Davidov, “Integrating different perspectives on socialization theory and research: a domain-specific approach,” Child Development, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 687–709, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. E. E. Maccoby and J. A. Martin, “Socialization in the context of the family: parent-child interaction,” in Handbook of Child Psychology: Socialization, Personality, and Social Development, P. H. Mussen, Ed., vol. 4, pp. 1–101, Wiley, New York, NY, USA, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  14. S. A. Kelley, C. A. Brownell, and S. B. Campbell, “Mastery motivation and self-evaluative affect in toddlers: longitudinal relations with maternal behavior,” Child Development, vol. 71, no. 4, pp. 1061–1071, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Soenens, M. Vansteenkiste, W. Lens et al., “Conceptualizing parental autonomy support: adolescent perceptions of promotion of independence versus promotion of volitional functioning,” Developmental Psychology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 633–646, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Kasari, M. Sigman, P. Mundy, and N. Yirmiya, “Caregiver interactions with autistic children,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 45–56, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. R. Watson, “Following the child's lead: mothers' interactions with children with autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 51–59, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  18. J. K. Baker, D. S. Messinger, K. K. Lyons, and C. J. Grantz, “A pilot study of maternal sensitivity in the context of emergent autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 40, no. 8, pp. 988–999, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. L. Lemanek, W. L. Stone, and P. T. Fishel, “Parent-child interactions in handicapped preschoolers: the relation between parent behaviors and compliance,” Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 68–77, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. M. W. Wan, J. Green, M. Elsabbagh, M. Johnson, T. Charman, and F. Plummer, “Parent–infant interaction in infant siblings at risk of autism,” Research in Developmental Disabilities, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 924–932, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. M. Meirsschaut, H. Roeyers, and P. Warreyn, “The social interactive behaviour of young children with autism spectrum disorder and their mothers: is there an effect of familiarity of the interaction partner?” Autism, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 43–64, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. Blacher, B. L. Baker, and A. Kaladjian, “Syndrome specificity and mother-child interactions: examining positive and negative parenting across contexts and time,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 761–774, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. H. Rutgers, M. H. van IJzendoorn, M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg et al., “Autism, attachment and parenting: a comparison of children with autism spectrum disorder, mental retardation, language disorder, and non-clinical children,” Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 859–870, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. G. Lambrechts, K. Van Leeuwen, H. Boonen, B. Maes, and I. Noens, “Parenting behaviour among parents of children with autism spectrum disorder,” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 1143–1152, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. K. Van Leeuwen, S. Rousseau, K. Hoppenbrouwers, R. Wiersema, and A. Desoete, JOnG! Opvoedings—En Gezinsvariabelen bij de Vlaamse Geboortecohorte 0-Jarigen (Rapport 24), Steunpunt Welzijn, Volksgezondheid en Gezin (SWVG), Leuven, Belgium, 2011.
  26. K. G. Van Leeuwen and A. A. Vermulst, “Some psychometric properties of the ghent parental behavior scale,” European Journal of Psychological Assessment, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 283–298, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. K. Van Leeuwen and I. Noens, Parental Behavior Scale for Autism Spectrum Disorders, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium, 2013.
  28. A. Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, SAGE Publications, London, UK, 2nd edition, 2005.
  29. J. Cohen, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioural Sciences, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 1988.
  30. R. B. Cattell, “The scree test for the number of factors,” Multivariate Behavioral Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 245–276, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  31. J. Maljaars, H. Boonen, G. Lambrechts, K. Van Leeuwen, and I. Noens, “Maternal parenting behavior and child behavior problems in families of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 501–512, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. E. Berk, “Emotional and social development in early childhood,” in Development through the Lifespan, L. E. Berk, Ed., pp. 245–275, Allyn & Bacon, Boston, Mass, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  33. K. Chawarska and F. R. Volkmar, “Autism in infancy and early childhood,” in Handbook of Autism and Pervasive Developmental Disorders, vol. 1 of Diagnosis, Development, Neurobiology, and Behavior, pp. 223–246, John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ, USA, 3rd edition, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  34. P. R. Hobson and J. A. Hobson, “Autism: self and others,” in Understanding Other Minds: Perspectives from Developmental Social Neuroscience, S. Baron-Cohen, H. Tager-Flusberg, and M. V. Lombardo, Eds., pp. 397–412, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  35. S. L. Hartley, D. M. Sikora, and R. McCoy, “Prevalence and risk factors of maladaptive behaviour in young children with autistic disorder,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 52, no. 10, pp. 819–829, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Charman, J. Ricketts, J. E. Dockrell, G. Lindsay, and O. Palikara, “Emotional and behavioural problems in children with language impairments and children with autism spectrum disorders,” International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 84–93, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. J. Park, G. W. Yelland, J. R. Taffe, and K. M. Gray, “Brief report: the relationship between language skills, adaptive behavior, and emotional and behavior problems in pre-schoolers with autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 2761–2766, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus