Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Autism Research and Treatment
Volume 2015, Article ID 741480, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/741480
Review Article

Gait Deviations in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Review

1Discipline of Physiotherapy, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
2Discipline of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

Received 13 October 2014; Revised 16 March 2015; Accepted 16 March 2015

Academic Editor: Robert F. Berman

Copyright © 2015 Deirdre Kindregan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. J. Rogers, “Interventions that facilitate socialization in children with autism,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 399–409, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  3. E. Fombonne, “Epidemiology of pervasive developmental disorders,” Pediatric Research, vol. 65, no. 6, pp. 591–598, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Lenoir, C. Bodier, H. Desombre et al., “Prevalence of pervasive developmental disorders. A review,” Encephale, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 36–42, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. American Psychiatric Publishing, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR), American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 4th edition, 2000.
  6. X. Ming, M. Brimacombe, and G. C. Wagner, “Prevalence of motor impairment in autism spectrum disorders,” Brain & Development, vol. 29, no. 9, pp. 565–570, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. C. Lord and R. M. Jones, “Annual research review: Re-thinking the classification of autism spectrum disorders,” Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 5, pp. 490–509, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. D. Marsden and S. Fahn, Eds., Movement Disorders, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 3rd edition, 1994.
  9. S. Goldman, C. Wang, M. W. Salgado, P. E. Greene, M. Kim, and I. Rapin, “Motor stereotypies in children with autism and other developmental disorders,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 30–38, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Levine, J. Richards, and M. W. Whittle, Eds., Whittle's Gait Analysis, Churchill Livingstone, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 5th edition, 2012.
  11. L. Kanner, “Autistic disturbances of affective contact,” Acta Paedopsychiatrica, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 100–136, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Ghaziuddin and E. Butler, “Clumsiness in autism and Asperger syndrome: a further report,” Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 43–48, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. K. A. Fournier, C. J. Hass, S. K. Naik, N. Lodha, and J. H. Cauraugh, “Motor coordination in autism spectrum disorders: a synthesis and meta-analysis,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 40, no. 10, pp. 1227–1240, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. W. J. Barrow, M. Jaworski, and P. J. Accardo, “Persistent toe walking in autism,” Journal of Child Neurology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 619–621, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. A. Marcus, B. Sinnott, S. Bradley, and I. Grey, “Treatment of idiopathic toe-walking in children with autism using GaitSpot Auditory Speakers and simplified habit reversal,” Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 260–267, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. M. Freitag, C. Kleser, M. Schneider, and A. von Gontard, “Quantitative assessment of neuromotor function in adolescents with high functioning autism and Asperger syndrome,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 948–959, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. Takarae, N. J. Minshew, B. Luna, C. M. Krisky, and J. A. Sweeney, “Pursuit eye movement deficits in autism,” Brain, vol. 127, no. 12, pp. 2584–2594, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. Y. Takarae, N. J. Minshew, B. Luna, and J. A. Sweeney, “Oculomotor abnormalities parallel cerebellar histopathology in autism,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, vol. 75, no. 9, pp. 1359–1361, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. H. Mostofsky, S. K. Powell, D. J. Simmonds, M. C. Goldberg, B. Caffo, and J. J. Pekar, “Decreased connectivity and cerebellar activity in autism during motor task performance,” Brain, vol. 132, no. 9, pp. 2413–2425, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. G. Allen and E. Courchesne, “Differential effects of developmental cerebellar abnormality on cognitive and motor functions in the cerebellum: an fMRI study of autism,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 262–273, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. D. M. Arin, M. L. Bauman, and T. L. Kemper, “The distribution of Purkinje cell loss in the cerebellum in autism,” Neurology, vol. 41, supplement, p. 307, 1991. View at Google Scholar
  22. A. Bailey, P. Luthert, A. Dean et al., “A clinicopathological study of autism,” Brain, vol. 121, no. 5, pp. 889–905, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. L. Bauman and T. L. Kemper, Eds., The Neurobiology of Autism, Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2005.
  24. E. R. Whitney, T. L. Kemper, M. L. Bauman, D. L. Rosene, and G. J. Blatt, “Cerebellar Purkinje cells are reduced in a subpopulation of autistic brains: a stereological experiment using calbindin-D28k,” Cerebellum, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 406–416, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Courchesne, E. Redcay, J. T. Morgan, and D. P. Kennedy, “Autism at the beginning: microstructural and growth abnormalities underlying the cognitive and behavioral phenotype of autism,” Development and Psychopathology, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 577–597, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. D. Schmahmann, D. L. Rosene, and D. N. Pandya, “Motor projections to the basis pontis in rhesus monkey,” Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol. 478, no. 3, pp. 248–268, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. J. Minshew, K. Sung, B. L. Jones, and J. M. Furman, “Underdevelopment of the postural control system in autism,” Neurology, vol. 63, no. 11, pp. 2056–2061, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. N. J. Rinehart, B. J. Tonge, J. L. Bradshaw, R. Iansek, P. G. Enticott, and J. McGinley, “Gait function in high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder: evidence for basal-ganglia and cerebellar involvement?” European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 256–264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Qiu, M. Adler, D. Crocetti, M. I. Miller, and S. H. Mostofsky, “Basal ganglia shapes predict social, communication, and motor dysfunctions in boys with autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 6, pp. 539–551, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. Hallett, M. K. Lebiedowska, S. L. Thomas, S. J. Stanhope, M. B. Denckla, and J. Rumsey, “Locomotion of autistic adults,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 1304–1308, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. D. A. Winter, “Kinematic and kinetic patterns in human gait: variability and compensating effects,” Human Movement Science, vol. 3, no. 1-2, pp. 51–76, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Shetreat-Klein, S. Shinnar, and I. Rapin, “Abnormalities of joint mobility and gait in children with autism spectrum disorders,” Brain & Development, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. M. J. Weiss, M. F. Moran, M. E. Parker, and J. T. Foley, “Gait analysis of teenagers and young adults diagnosed with autism and severe verbal communication disorders,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 7, article 33, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. V. L. Chester and M. Calhoun, “Gait symmetry in children with autism,” Autism Research and Treatment, vol. 2012, Article ID 576478, 5 pages, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. A. Nayate, B. J. Tonge, J. L. Bradshaw, J. L. McGinley, R. Iansek, and N. J. Rinehart, “Differentiation of high-functioning autism and asperger's disorder based on neuromotor behaviour,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 707–717, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Calhoun, M. Longworth, and V. L. Chester, “Gait patterns in children with autism,” Clinical Biomechanics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 200–206, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. Nobile, P. Perego, L. Piccinini et al., “Further evidence of complex motor dysfunction in drug naïve children with autism using automatic motion analysis of gait,” Autism, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 263–283, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. J. Rinehart, B. J. Tonge, R. Iansek et al., “Gait function in newly diagnosed children with autism: cerebellar and basal ganglia related motor disorder,” Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 819–824, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Vernazza-Martin, N. Martin, A. Vernazza et al., “Goal directed locomotion and balance control in autistic children,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 91–102, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Ambrosini, E. Courchesne, and K. Kaufman, “Motion analysis of patients with infantile autism,” Gait & Posture, vol. 7, no. 2, p. 188, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. J. A. Vilensky, A. R. Damasio, and R. G. Maurer, “Gait disturbances in patients with autistic behavior. A preliminary study,” Archives of Neurology, vol. 38, no. 10, pp. 646–649, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. P. Whyatt and C. M. Craig, “Motor skills in children aged 7-10 years, diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder,” Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, vol. 42, no. 9, pp. 1799–1809, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. B. Torres, M. Brincker, R. W. Isenhower et al., “Autism: the micro-movement perspective,” Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience, vol. 7, article 32, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. N. J. Rinehart, J. L. Bradshaw, A. V. Brereton, and B. J. Tonge, “A clinical and neurobehavioural review of high-functioning autism and Asperger's disorder,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 762–770, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. D. Schmahmann, The Cerebellum and Cognition, Academic Press, San Diego, Calif, USA, 1997.
  46. N. J. Minshew and G. Goldstein, “Autism as a disorder of complex information processing,” Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 129–136, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. Bishop, D. Brunt, N. Pathare, and B. Patel, “The effect of velocity on the strategies used during gait termination,” Gait & Posture, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 134–139, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. U. McCulloch, D. Brunt, and D. Vander Linden, “The effect of foot orthotics and gait velocity on lower limb kinematics and temporal events of stance,” Journal of Orthopaedic & Sports Physical Therapy, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 2–10, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. R. D. Crowinshield, R. A. Brand, and R. C. Johnston, “The effects of walking velocity and age on hip kinematics and kinetics,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, vol. 132, pp. 140–144, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. W. McCandless, G. K. Feussner, W. D. Lust, and J. V. Passonneau, “Metabolite levels in brain following experimental seizures: the effects of isoniazid and sodium valproate in cerebellar and cerebral cortical layers,” Journal of Neurochemistry, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 755–760, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. Sheehan and J. Gormley, “Gait and increased body weight (potential implications for musculoskeletal disease),” Physical Therapy Reviews, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 91–98, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. Y. Roke, P. N. Van Harten, J. K. Buitelaar et al., “Bone mineral density in male adolescents with autism spectrum disorders and disruptive behavior disorder with or without antipsychotic treatment,” European Journal of Endocrinology, vol. 167, no. 6, pp. 855–863, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus